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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 728.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
12

sókn ‘Battle’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknhvattr (adj.)

notes

[1] sóknhvattar ‘battle-keen’: Hap. leg.

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hvattar ‘keen’

[1] ‑hvattar: hvatar 8, hvattir Flat

notes

[1] sóknhvattar ‘battle-keen’: Hap. leg.

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‘the’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high < háleitr (adj.): glorious, sublime

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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leitan ‘ sublime’

-leitr (adj.): -looking < háleitr (adj.): glorious, sublime

[2] ‑leitan: ‑lettan Flat

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3-4] glymstæri glyggs geira ‘din-increaser of the storm of spears [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Glym- ‘din-’ is not part of the kenning for ‘battle’ (glyggs geira ‘of the storm of spears’); rather, it refers to the noise of the battle. See LP: glymstœrir. See also Introduction above.

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geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3-4] glymstæri glyggs geira ‘din-increaser of the storm of spears [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Glym- ‘din-’ is not part of the kenning for ‘battle’ (glyggs geira ‘of the storm of spears’); rather, it refers to the noise of the battle. See LP: glymstœrir. See also Introduction above.

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glym ‘din’

glymr (noun m.): noise < glymstœrir (noun m.)

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3-4] glymstæri glyggs geira ‘din-increaser of the storm of spears [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Glym- ‘din-’ is not part of the kenning for ‘battle’ (glyggs geira ‘of the storm of spears’); rather, it refers to the noise of the battle. See LP: glymstœrir. See also Introduction above.

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stæri ‘increaser’

stœrir (noun m.): increaser < glymstœrir (noun m.)

[3] ‑stæri: ‘‑stori’ 8

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3-4] glymstæri glyggs geira ‘din-increaser of the storm of spears [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Glym- ‘din-’ is not part of the kenning for ‘battle’ (glyggs geira ‘of the storm of spears’); rather, it refers to the noise of the battle. See LP: glymstœrir. See also Introduction above.

Close

glyggs ‘of the storm’

glygg (noun n.; °-s; -): storm

[4] glyggs: glygg 8

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3-4] glymstæri glyggs geira ‘din-increaser of the storm of spears [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Glym- ‘din-’ is not part of the kenning for ‘battle’ (glyggs geira ‘of the storm of spears’); rather, it refers to the noise of the battle. See LP: glymstœrir. See also Introduction above.

Close

glyggs ‘of the storm’

glygg (noun n.; °-s; -): storm

[4] glyggs: glygg 8

kennings

háleitan glymstæri glyggs geira
‘the sublime din-increaser of the storm of spears ’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of spears → BATTLE
the sublime din-increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3-4] glymstæri glyggs geira ‘din-increaser of the storm of spears [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’: Glym- ‘din-’ is not part of the kenning for ‘battle’ (glyggs geira ‘of the storm of spears’); rather, it refers to the noise of the battle. See LP: glymstœrir. See also Introduction above.

Close

ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

notes

[4] ór Finnbygðum ‘from the settlements of the Saami’: I.e. from North Norway.

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Finnbygðum ‘the settlements of the Saami’

Finnbyggð (noun f.): settlements of Saami

notes

[4] ór Finnbygðum ‘from the settlements of the Saami’: I.e. from North Norway.

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Alt ‘all the way’

allr (adj.): all

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jarð ‘of the earth’

jǫrð (noun f.; °jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)): ground, earth < jarðbelti (noun n.): [earth-belt]

kennings

jarðbeltis
‘of the earth-belt ’
   = SEA

the earth-belt → SEA
Close

beltis ‘belt’

belti (noun n.; °-s; -): belt < jarðbelti (noun n.): [earth-belt]

kennings

jarðbeltis
‘of the earth-belt ’
   = SEA

the earth-belt → SEA
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sigrflaustum ‘the victory-vessels’

sigrflaust (noun n.): [victory-vessels]

notes

[6] sigrflaustum ‘victory-vessels’: Hap. leg.

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

notes

[7] af Gautelfi ‘from the Götaälv’: River in present-day south-western Sweden.

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Gautelfi ‘the Götaälv’

Gautelfr (noun f.): [Götaälv]

notes

[7] af Gautelfi ‘from the Götaälv’: River in present-day south-western Sweden.

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gætis ‘of the guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

kennings

gætis hásæta
‘of the guardian of rowing-benches ’
   = CAPTAIN

the guardian of rowing-benches → CAPTAIN

notes

[8] gætis hásæta ‘of the guardian of rowing-benches [CAPTAIN]’: See also st. 19/6 below.

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hásæta ‘of rowing-benches’

hásæti (noun n.): high-seat

kennings

gætis hásæta
‘of the guardian of rowing-benches ’
   = CAPTAIN

the guardian of rowing-benches → CAPTAIN

notes

[8] gætis hásæta ‘of the guardian of rowing-benches [CAPTAIN]’: See also st. 19/6 below.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In 1263, Hákon set out on his campaign to the west to reestablish his sovereignty in the Hebrides and to punish the Scots for their rebellious behaviour. He gathered an army from all of Norway, and the naval contingents from the north and the south gathered in Herdlevær (in Øygarden, Hordaland) before they embarked on the journey.

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