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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 65VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 65’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 131-2.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
6465

Án ‘without’

án (prep.): without

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engan ‘no’

2. engi (pron.): no, none

[1] engan (‘o᷎nnguan’): so 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎nngua[...]’ B

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angr ‘sorrow’

1. angr (noun m.; °angrs, dat. angri/angr): grief < angrlestandi (noun m.)

[2] angrlestandi: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘anngrlestan[...]e’ B

kennings

angrlestandi jǫfurr sunnu;
‘sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; ’
   = God

sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; → God
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lestandi ‘injuring’

-lestandi (adj./verb p.p.): damager, injuring < angrlestandi (noun m.)

[2] angrlestandi: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘anngrlestan[...]e’ B

kennings

angrlestandi jǫfurr sunnu;
‘sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; ’
   = God

sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; → God
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miskunn ‘mercy’

miskunn (noun f.; °-ar; gen. -a): forgiveness, mercy, grace

notes

[4] miskunn, jǫfurr sunnu: The identical l. occurs at Leið 42/6. These are the only occurrences of the Christ-kenning jǫfurr sunnu ‘prince of the sun’, but the symbolic equation of God with the sun and Christ as the sun’s rays is central to Geisl (see Chase 2005, 21-5).

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jǫfurr ‘prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

angrlestandi jǫfurr sunnu;
‘sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; ’
   = God

sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; → God

notes

[4] miskunn, jǫfurr sunnu: The identical l. occurs at Leið 42/6. These are the only occurrences of the Christ-kenning jǫfurr sunnu ‘prince of the sun’, but the symbolic equation of God with the sun and Christ as the sun’s rays is central to Geisl (see Chase 2005, 21-5).

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sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

angrlestandi jǫfurr sunnu;
‘sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; ’
   = God

sorrow-injuring prince of the sun; → God

notes

[4] miskunn, jǫfurr sunnu: The identical l. occurs at Leið 42/6. These are the only occurrences of the Christ-kenning jǫfurr sunnu ‘prince of the sun’, but the symbolic equation of God with the sun and Christ as the sun’s rays is central to Geisl (see Chase 2005, 21-5).

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Vǫrðr ‘warden’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

kennings

vǫrðr skýtjalds,
‘warden of the cloud-tent, ’
   = God

the cloud-tent, → SKY/HEAVEN
warden of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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laða ‘invite’

laða (verb): invite

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ský ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýtjald (noun n.)

kennings

vǫrðr skýtjalds,
‘warden of the cloud-tent, ’
   = God

the cloud-tent, → SKY/HEAVEN
warden of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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ský ‘of the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýtjald (noun n.)

kennings

vǫrðr skýtjalds,
‘warden of the cloud-tent, ’
   = God

the cloud-tent, → SKY/HEAVEN
warden of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < skýtjald (noun n.)

kennings

vǫrðr skýtjalds,
‘warden of the cloud-tent, ’
   = God

the cloud-tent, → SKY/HEAVEN
warden of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < skýtjald (noun n.)

kennings

vǫrðr skýtjalds,
‘warden of the cloud-tent, ’
   = God

the cloud-tent, → SKY/HEAVEN
warden of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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saman ‘together’

saman (adv.): together

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alla ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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ítr ‘Glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

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þars ‘to where’

þar (adv.): there

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aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never

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frið ‘peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace

[8] frið dróttinn: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘fri[...]rotinn’ B

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dróttinn ‘Lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

[8] frið dróttinn: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘fri[...]rotinn’ B

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[2-3]: Jón Helgason (1935-6, 262) expands B’s ‘mn’ (l. 3) to menn (acc. pl.) and assumes the intercalated phrase to be þat deilir menn mestu máli, taking þat deilir máli to mean ‘that settles the case, is of importance’. This requires emendation of the ms.’s mesta to mestu ‘great’, to agree with máli dat. sg. Although the intercalated phrase often encompasses the third l. of a helmingr in its entirety (as at 8/3, 17/3, 22/3 and 35/3), it does not always do so (cf., e.g., 61/3). The ms. reading mesta may be preserved here by taking it as qualifying miskunn ‘mercy’ (l. 4) and, in agreement with Sveinbjörn Egilsson, Finnur Jónsson and Black, expanding ‘mn’ to mann, and construing this as part of the main cl.

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