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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Frag 17III

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Fragments 17’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 167.

Einarr SkúlasonFragments
161718

Œsir ‘stir up’

œsa (verb): surge

notes

[1] œsir ‘stir up’: Lit. ‘stirs up’: The verb is in the sg. but it has a coordinate subject (see NS §70).

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at ‘against’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[1] at: so R, C, af A, B

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hraustum ‘the valiant’

hraustr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): strong, valiant

kennings

hraustum grenni skúfs Gǫndlar;
‘the valiant feeder of Gǫndul’s skua; ’
   = WARRIOR

Gǫndul’s skua; → RAVEN/EAGLE
the valiant feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
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Himinglæva ‘Himinglæva’

himinglæva (noun f.): himinglæva

notes

[2] Himinglæva: One of Ægir’s daughters, ‘heaven-bright one’ (i.e. reflections of the sky on the surface of the sea). See also Þul Waves l. 3 and Þul Sjóvar 4/4.

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þyt ‘violently’

[2] þyt: ‘þvt’ R, þýtr C

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sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

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glymr ‘the roar’

glymr (noun m.): noise

[3] glymr Unnar: ‘[…]’ B, ‘glýmrunnar’ 744ˣ

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Unnar ‘of Unnr’

Unnr (noun m.): Unnr

[3] glymr Unnar: ‘[…]’ B, ‘glýmrunnar’ 744ˣ

notes

[3] Unnar ‘of Unnr’: Unnr means ‘wave’. See also Þul Waves l. 7 and Þul Sjóvar 4/5.

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grenni ‘feeder’

1. grennir (noun m.): feeder

[3] grenni: ‘[…]e’ B, ‘gre᷎nne’ 744ˣ

kennings

hraustum grenni skúfs Gǫndlar;
‘the valiant feeder of Gǫndul’s skua; ’
   = WARRIOR

Gǫndul’s skua; → RAVEN/EAGLE
the valiant feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’s’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

kennings

hraustum grenni skúfs Gǫndlar;
‘the valiant feeder of Gǫndul’s skua; ’
   = WARRIOR

Gǫndul’s skua; → RAVEN/EAGLE
the valiant feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’s’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

kennings

hraustum grenni skúfs Gǫndlar;
‘the valiant feeder of Gǫndul’s skua; ’
   = WARRIOR

Gǫndul’s skua; → RAVEN/EAGLE
the valiant feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR
Close

skúfs ‘skua’

2. skúfr (noun m.): [skua]

[4] skúfs: ‘[…]ufs’ B, ‘skufs’ 744ˣ

kennings

hraustum grenni skúfs Gǫndlar;
‘the valiant feeder of Gǫndul’s skua; ’
   = WARRIOR

Gǫndul’s skua; → RAVEN/EAGLE
the valiant feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] skúfs ‘skua’: An arctic bird of prey (Stercorarius skua). See also Note to Þul Fugla 3/5-6.

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skúfs ‘skua’

2. skúfr (noun m.): [skua]

[4] skúfs: ‘[…]ufs’ B, ‘skufs’ 744ˣ

kennings

hraustum grenni skúfs Gǫndlar;
‘the valiant feeder of Gǫndul’s skua; ’
   = WARRIOR

Gǫndul’s skua; → RAVEN/EAGLE
the valiant feeder of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] skúfs ‘skua’: An arctic bird of prey (Stercorarius skua). See also Note to Þul Fugla 3/5-6.

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Dúfa ‘Dúfa’

2. dúfa (noun f.): dove

notes

[4] Dúfa: The third daughter of Ægir, ‘rocking one’. See also Þul Waves l. 8 and Þul Sjóvar 4/6.

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strýkr ‘strokes’

strýkja (verb): [strokes]

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Blóðughadda ‘Blóðughadda’

Blóðughadda (noun f.): Blóðughadda

notes

[5] Blóðughadda: This daughter’s name translates as ‘bloody-haired one’. It is not clear why a wave should be bloody-haired, unless it refers to the colour of the sea at sunset. See also Þul Waves l. 6 and Þul Sjóvar 4/8.

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brimsolgin ‘sea-swollen’

brimsolginn (adj.): [sea-swollen]

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fellr ‘falls’

falla (verb): fall

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Kolga ‘Kólga’

kolga (noun f.): breaker, wave

notes

[6] Kolga ‘Kólga’: Ægir’s fifth daughter is ‘cool one’. See also Þul Waves l. 7 and Þul Sjóvar 4/3.

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hlýr ‘bows’

2. hlýr (noun n.; °-s; -): cheek, bow

[7] hlýr þars Hefring stœrir (‘hlyr þar ær hæfring stærir’): ‘[…]’ B, ‘hlýr skilr hefring st u er’ 744ˣ

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þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

[7] hlýr þars Hefring stœrir (‘hlyr þar ær hæfring stærir’): ‘[…]’ B, ‘hlýr skilr hefring st u er’ 744ˣ

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Hefring ‘Hefring’

hefring (noun f.): hefring

[7] hlýr þars Hefring stœrir (‘hlyr þar ær hæfring stærir’): ‘[…]’ B, ‘hlýr skilr hefring st u er’ 744ˣ

notes

[7] Hefring: The sixth and last daughter of Ægir named here is ‘self-lifting one’. See also Þul Waves l. 3 and Þul Sjóvar 4/1.

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stœrir ‘increases’

stœra (verb): increase, strengthen

[7] hlýr þars Hefring stœrir (‘hlyr þar ær hæfring stærir’): ‘[…]’ B, ‘hlýr skilr hefring st u er’ 744ˣ

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haflauðr ‘the sea-foam’

haflauðr (noun n.): [sea-foam]

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of ‘around’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

notes

[8] of rauðan við ‘around the red wood’: Or ‘around the red ship’ if við ‘wood’ is taken as pars pro toto for ‘ship’ (see Note to Frag 16/2 above). This prepositional phrase could also go with the second clause of the helmingr (so Skj B; Skald).

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við ‘wood’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree

notes

[8] of rauðan við ‘around the red wood’: Or ‘around the red ship’ if við ‘wood’ is taken as pars pro toto for ‘ship’ (see Note to Frag 16/2 above). This prepositional phrase could also go with the second clause of the helmingr (so Skj B; Skald).

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rauðan ‘the red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red

[8] rauðan: ‘rauða[…]’ B, ‘raudan’ 744ˣ

notes

[8] of rauðan við ‘around the red wood’: Or ‘around the red ship’ if við ‘wood’ is taken as pars pro toto for ‘ship’ (see Note to Frag 16/2 above). This prepositional phrase could also go with the second clause of the helmingr (so Skj B; Skald).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Skm the stanza is cited because it enumerates the names of six of the nine daughters of Ægir, a sea-giant in Old Norse myth. Ægir is a personification of the sea, and his daughters are the waves.

All of the heiti for ‘wave’ found in this stanza are also listed in Þul Waves, and the two stanzas are indeed so similar that it is tempting to suggest that the latter, which is anonymous, may have been composed by Einarr as well. The heiti are also listed in Þul Sjóvar 4 and in the prose of Skm (SnE 1998, I, 36).

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