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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Hardr I 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Haraldsdrápa I 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 542-3.

Einarr SkúlasonHaraldsdrápa I
12

Ótryggum ‘disloyal’

ótryggr (adj.): [disloyal]

[1] Ótryggum: Ótryggjum FskAˣ, F, 42ˣ, ‘Bryggum’ E

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lét ‘let’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] lét: lézt FskBˣ, FskAˣ, Kˣ, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, H, lét ek Hr

notes

[1] lét (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘let’: Hkr, Fsk, and H-Hr all have lézt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. m. v.), which would mean that the st. was recited in the presence of Haraldr. If that reading is retained, eljunfrár munnlituðr hrafns ‘the courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven’ (ll. 2, 4) must be taken as a form of address (so most earlier eds).

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eljun ‘The courage-’

eljun (noun f.; °eljunar): energy < eljunfrár (adj.)

kennings

Eljunfrár munnlituðr hrafns
‘The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven ’
   = WARRIOR

The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven → WARRIOR

notes

[2] eljunfrár ‘courage-quick’: So Mork, . Eljunþrár ‘courage-tenacious’ (so all other mss) is a possible variant and has been adopted by most earlier eds.

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frár ‘quick’

frár (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. -vastr/-str): agile, quick < eljunfrár (adj.)

[2] ‑frár: ‑þrár FskBˣ, FskAˣ, F, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, H, Hr

kennings

Eljunfrár munnlituðr hrafns
‘The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven ’
   = WARRIOR

The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven → WARRIOR

notes

[2] eljunfrár ‘courage-quick’: So Mork, . Eljunþrár ‘courage-tenacious’ (so all other mss) is a possible variant and has been adopted by most earlier eds.

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hôri ‘lofty’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[2] hôri: ‘harre’ FskBˣ

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Hveðn ‘Ven’

Hveðn (noun f.): Ven

[3] Hveðn á: ‘h[...]’ FskBˣ

notes

[3] Hveðn ‘Ven’: Island in Øresund between Denmark and Sweden.

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á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[3] Hveðn á: ‘h[...]’ FskBˣ

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hǫlðum ‘freeholders’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

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roðnar ‘be reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[3] roðnar: roðna F, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ

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hrafns ‘of the raven’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

[4] hrafns: ‘rams’ FskBˣ, FskAˣ

kennings

Eljunfrár munnlituðr hrafns
‘The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven ’
   = WARRIOR

The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven → WARRIOR
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munn ‘mouth-’

munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth < munnlituðr (noun m.)

[4] munn‑: munnr FskAˣ

kennings

Eljunfrár munnlituðr hrafns
‘The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven ’
   = WARRIOR

The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven → WARRIOR
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lituðr ‘colourer’

lituðr (noun m.): colourer < munnlituðr (noun m.)

[4] ‑lituðr: ‑brúðr FskBˣ, ‑litaðr FskAˣ, Kˣ

kennings

Eljunfrár munnlituðr hrafns
‘The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven ’
   = WARRIOR

The courage-quick mouth-colourer of the raven → WARRIOR
Close

þunnar ‘thin’

þunnr (adj.): slender, thin

[4] þunnar: þunnan Hr

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áðr ‘before’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

notes

[5] áðr ‘before’: Skj B takes this adv. with the second cl. and construes the following reading: áðr Danir urðu at ganga á hǫnd ógnarprúðum ulfnistanda, þars hræskurðr missti hungr ‘before the Danes were obliged to surrender to the terror-proud wolf-feeder, where the corpse-cleaver lost its hunger’ (ll. 5-8). That reading creates an unprecedented tripartite l. (l. 5), and Kock (NN §922) takes ógnarprúðum ulfnistanda (m. dat. sg.) ‘the terror-proud wolf-feeder’ (ll. 5-6) as an absolute dat. of agency (þars hræskurðr missti hungr ógnarprúðum ulfnistanda ‘where the corpse-cleaver lost its hunger on account of the terror-proud wolf-feeder’). Such a construction is, however, unattested (see NS §100 anm. 2).

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ógnar ‘to the battle’

ógn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): terror, battle < ógnarprúðr (adj.)

kennings

ógnarprúðum ulfnistanda.
‘to the battle-proud wolf-feeder.’
   = WARRIOR

to the battle-proud wolf-feeder. → WARRIOR
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prúðum ‘proud’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud < ógnarprúðr (adj.)

kennings

ógnarprúðum ulfnistanda.
‘to the battle-proud wolf-feeder.’
   = WARRIOR

to the battle-proud wolf-feeder. → WARRIOR
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ulf ‘wolf’

1. ulfr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): wolf < ulfnistandi (noun m.)

kennings

ógnarprúðum ulfnistanda.
‘to the battle-proud wolf-feeder.’
   = WARRIOR

to the battle-proud wolf-feeder. → WARRIOR
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nistanda ‘feeder’

nistandi (noun m.): feeder < ulfnistandi (noun m.)

kennings

ógnarprúðum ulfnistanda.
‘to the battle-proud wolf-feeder.’
   = WARRIOR

to the battle-proud wolf-feeder. → WARRIOR
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missti ‘lost’

2. missa (verb): lose, lack

[6] missti: misstu Mork

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hræ ‘the carrion’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræskurðr (noun m.)

kennings

hræskurðr
‘the carrion-cleaver ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the carrion-cleaver → RAVEN/EAGLE
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skurðr ‘cleaver’

skurðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir): [grooves, cleaver] < hræskurðr (noun m.)

kennings

hræskurðr
‘the carrion-cleaver ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the carrion-cleaver → RAVEN/EAGLE
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urðu ‘were obliged’

1. verða (verb): become, be

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