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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Merlínusspá II — GunnLeif Merl IIVIII (Bret)

Gunnlaugr Leifsson

Russell Poole 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Gunnlaugr Leifsson, Merlínusspá II’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 134.

 

Ráðumk segja         sundbáls viðum
spár spakligar         spámanns gǫfugs,
þess’s á breiðu         Bretlandi sat;
hét Merlínus         margvitr gumi.
 
‘I resolve to tell the trees of the channel-fire [GOLD > MEN] the wise prophecies of the noble prophet, who resided in extensive Britain; the man wise in many things was called Merlin.
Sagðr vas lýðum         ok landrekum
myrk* at ráða         mǫrg rǫk fyrir.
Kærr vas hann kristnu         kynni þjóðar;
vasat á moldu         maðr vitrari.
 
‘He was said to interpret many obscure signs before the people and rulers. He was dear to the Christian family of people; there was not a wiser man on earth.
Leita ýtir         orð at vanda
— viti flotnar þat —         frœðis þessa.
Heldr fýsumk nú         fornra minna
miðsamlig rǫk         mǫnnum segja.
 
‘Men seek to elaborate on the words of this lore; let people realise that. Rather, I now hasten to tell men of momentous signs from ancient memories.
Ljós mun lýðum         ljóðbók vesa;
þós í frœði         flest at ráða,
þats fyrir jǫfurr         ǫldum sagði
brezkri þjóðu;         nú skal brag kveða.
 
‘The song-book will be clear to men; yet most [of it] is to be interpreted by means of wisdom that ages ago the leader imparted to the British people; now the poem shall be recited.
‘Vella í víðri         Vintónía
— þats borgar nafn —         brunnar þrennir.
Þeir munu láði         lœkjum skipta
þrír óglíkir         í þrjá staði.
 
‘‘Triple springs will well up in broad Winchester; that is the name of the city. Those three, [each] unlike [the others], will divide the land with their streams into three parts.
‘Einn es brunna         beztr at reyna;
eykr auðstǫfum         aldr, ef drekka.
Né sótt hǫfug         sœkir hǫlða,
þás bergt hafa         beisku vatni.
 
‘‘One of the springs is best to try; it will increase the life-span for wealth-staves [MEN], if they drink it. Nor will grievous sickness afflict men who have tasted the bitter water.
‘Illr es annarr;         allir svelta,
þeirs af bekki         bergja drekku.
Þós inn þriðja         þyngst at reyna;
deyja þeir allir,         es þar drekka af;
né hræ guma         hyljask foldu.
 
‘‘The second is bad; all those who taste a drink from the stream will die. Yet the third is most grievous to try; all those who drink from it will die; nor will men’s corpses be covered with earth.
‘Vilja hǫlðar         hylja brunna,
þás flestum hal         fjǫrspell gera.
En, þats lýðir         á lǫg bera,
alt verðr at ǫðru,         en áðr séi:
grund at grjóti,         grjót at vatni,
viðr at ǫsku,         en af ǫsku vatn.
 
‘‘Men will want to cover up the springs that cause death for most people. But all that men carry to the water will turn to something other than it was previously: earth to stone, stone to water, wood to ash, and water from ash.
‘Farit es at meyju         margfróðastri
í kappsauðga         Knútsskógar borg,
at hon lækningar         leiti þjóðum
ok firri menn         fári slíku.
 
‘‘A maiden most wise about many things will be approached in the exceedingly prosperous city of Canute’s wood, so that she may seek remedies for the people and rescue men from such peril.
‘Tekr hon at reyna         ok at ráða fjǫlð;
tekr hon íþróttir         allar fremja.
Andar síðan         snót á brunna,
ok brúðr þurra         báða gervir.
 
‘‘She will start to test and devise a great many [remedies]; she will start practising all her arts. Then the woman will breathe on the springs and the lady will make them both dry.
‘Hon þá drekkr         it dýra vatn,
ok máttr við þat         magnask brúðar.
Berr hon í hœgri         hendi sinni,
kynstór kona,         Kolídónis skóg,
en í lófa man         Lundúna borg.
 
‘‘She will then drink the precious water and the woman’s strength will increase with that. She, the woman of high lineage, will bear the forest of Colidon in her right hand and the maiden [will bear] the city of London in her palm.
‘Gengr hon síðan         gótt frón yfir,
svát ór sporum snótar         sprettr upp logi.
Með rǫmmum reyk         Rúténéos
sá vekr ok verð         verþjóðu gerr.
 
‘‘Then she will walk over the good land, so that flame springs up from the footsteps of the woman. It will wake up the Ruteni with the powerful smoke, and make a meal for the sea-people.
‘Gerisk ógurligt         óp í landi,
es gull-Skǫgul         grætr hástǫfum.
Ok þjóta tekr         þjóð með henni
innan of alla         ey með hringum.
 
‘‘A terrible cry will be made in the land, when the Skǫgul <valkyrie> of gold [WOMAN] weeps loudly. And people therein will start wailing with her throughout the entire island.
‘Hjǫrtr drepr hana,         hinns tvenna fimm
hvassa hausi         hornkvistu berr.
En hafa kórónu         kvistir fjórir,
en sex aðrir         sjalfir verða
at vísundar         verstum hornum.
 
‘‘A hart will slay her, he who bears twice five sharp antler-branches on his head. And four branches will have a crown while the other six for their part will turn into the worst horns of a bison.
‘Þeir þjótandi         þrr of hrœra
búnir at berjask         Bretlands eyjar.
Þá mun vakna         viðr inn danski
ok manns rǫddu         mæla sjalfri.
 
‘‘Wailing, prepared to fight, they will stir up the three islands of Britain. Then the Danish wood will awake and speak with a man’s actual voice.
‘“Kom Kambría         með Kornbretum,
seg Vintóni:         ‘Vǫllr þik gleypir.
Fœr hirðis sjǫt         hinig, es leggja
lung at láði;         munu liðir allir
hǫfði fylgja;         þats hjǫlp guma.’
 
‘‘“Come Cambria, along with the Cornish Britons, say to Winchester: ‘The plain will swallow you up. Move the shepherd’s settlement here, where ships make for the land; all limbs will follow the head; that is the salvation of men.’
‘En sæti hans         sunddýr fagna;
hans mun stóll vesa         yfir stoðum tvennum.
Þó hefr gumnum         grandat mǫrgum
hvítrar ullar         hvers kyns litir.
 
‘‘But his seats gladden sound-animals [SHIPS]; his throne will rest on two columns. Yet dyes of every kind for white wool have harmed many men.
‘Borg mun falla,         — veitk bana þjóðum —
þvíat hon eiðrofa         áðr of gerðisk.
Munu griðbítar         gǫrla drepnir;
geldr Vintóna         vándra manna.
 
‘‘The city will fall, because it had previously perjured itself; I know of death for the people. The breakers of the truce will [be] comprehensively put to death; Winchester will pay for the wicked men.
‘Mun bjarnígull         borg upp gera;
smíðar hæsta         hǫll landreki.
Hana mun remma         ríkr oddviti
fimm hundruðum         fagra turna.
 
‘‘A hedgehog will restore the city; the ruler will build the highest hall. The mighty leader will strengthen it with five hundred fine towers.
‘Þat Lundúnum         líkar illa;
eykr hon þrimr hlutum         þykka veggi.
Kostar hon keppa         við konungíðnir;
ferr suðr of fjall         frægð af smíði,
en* Tems of borg         tekr at geisa.
 
‘‘That will displease London; she will increase her thick walls threefold. She will attempt to compete with the king’s exploits; news of the work will travel south over the mountain and the Thames will start to surge around the city.
‘En it horska dýr         hlezk aldini
harðla góðu,         þvís hilmir velr.
Koma foglar þar         fljúgandi til
af vum víða         vitja epla.
 
‘‘And the wise beast will load himself with very good fruit, which the king selects. There birds will come flying up, far and wide from the woods, to visit the apples.
‘En bjarnígull         býr of vélar;
leynir hann eplum         Lundúnum í.
Grefr í grundu         gǫtur háligar
fýstr til fengjar         fláráðugt dýr.
 
‘‘But the hedgehog will engineer contrivances; he will hide the apples in London. The treacherous beast, eager for booty, will dig lofty passages in the ground.
‘Þá munu ór moldu         mæla steinar
ok verþjóðar         vél upp koma.
Ey mun víðask,         en Valir skjalfa,
ok sær saman         sœkja fíkjum,
svát millim landa         mál of heyri.
 
‘‘Then stones will speak from the earth and the machinations of the sea-people be revealed. The island will be widened, and the French will tremble, and the sea will come together greatly so that speech can be heard between the lands.
‘Kemr ór skógi         Kalatérío
fogl fljúgandi,         sás fira villir.
Flýgr of nôttum,         nýsir gǫrla;
kallar hegri         hvern fogl til sín;
es um tvívetri         tálráð samit.
 
‘‘From the forest of Calaterium a bird will come flying that will lead men astray. It will fly at night, spy thoroughly; the heron will call every bird to itself; treachery will be devised over a two-year span.
‘Flykkjask foglar;         fara þeir í sæði;
eyða þeir ǫkrum         ok aldini.
Sultr verðr ok sótt         — sék mart fyrir —
manndauðr mikill;         mein gengr of þjóð.
 
‘‘The birds will flock together; they will go into the crops; they will devastate the fields and fruit. Famine will develop, also sickness, great mortality of men; I see many things to come; harm will afflict the people.
‘En fogl ept þat         ferr vestr í dal,
þanns Gálábes         gumnar kalla.
Hann mun hefjask         í it hæsta fjall,
ok þar uppi         í eikr limum
hreiðrask hegri;         hann es fogla verstr.
 
‘‘But after that the bird will go westwards into the valley that people call Galabes. It [the valley] will raise itself into the highest mountain and up there the heron will nest on the branches of an oak; it is the worst of birds.
‘Þrjá klekr hann unga         því hreiðri í;
eigi es hegra kyn         hugþekkt firum.
Þars vargr ok bjǫrn         ok at vísu refr
slœgr ok sínum         sjaldan verr alinn.
 
‘‘It will hatch three young in that nest; the offspring of the heron is not loved by men. A wolf will be there, also a bear and assuredly a fox sly and seldom born [one] worse to its own [kind].
‘Vaxa þar allir         upp brœðr saman;
erut gjarnir þeir         gótt at vinna.
Refr á móður         ræðr grimmliga;
tapar henni sá         týnir sauða;
es grenbúi         gjarn á ríki.
 
‘‘The brothers will all grow up together there; they will not be eager to do good. The fox will attack its mother savagely; that destroyer of sheep [FOX] will kill her; the lair-dweller [FOX] will be eager for power.
‘Brœðr vill hann sína         beita vélum;
tekr horshǫfuð         hildingr á sik.
En hoddskata         hræðask báðir;
flýja barmar         brott ór landi.
 
‘‘It will attack its brothers with tricks; the ruler will put on a horse’s head. And both [brothers] will fear the treasure-chieftain [MAN]; the brothers will flee from the land.
‘Ok suðr skulu þeir         sveitar leita;
vekr vargr ok bjǫrn         villigalta.
En galti þeim         gengi sínu
heitr hvatliga,         þvít hann hug trúir.
 
‘‘And they will have to seek for an army in the south; the wolf and the bear will rouse a wild boar. And the boar will promise them his support with alacrity, since he trusts in his [own] courage.
‘Þeir snarliga         sundraukn búa;
dragask lítinn þeir         landher saman.
Gnýr es manna,         gengr lið róa;
hylr Hǫgna sjǫt          †herkorn† skipa.
 
‘‘They will rapidly equip the draught animals of the sea [SHIPS]; they will bring a small land-army together. There will be a commotion of men, the army will set to rowing; †…† of ships covers the seat of Hǫgni <sea-king> [SEA].
‘Halda þeir sunnan         of svalan ægi
Bretlands á vit;         búask til rómu.
En refr hinig         með rekka lið
ferr fráliga         fold at verja.
 
‘‘They will hold their course from the south across the cold sea towards Wales; they will prepare for battle. But the fox will go there swiftly to defend the land with a band of men.
‘Hríð gerisk hjalma,         hlífar klofna;
eru rammliga         randir kníðar.
Gnesta geirar,         es guðr vakin;
verðr víða lið         at vallroði.
 
‘‘The storm of helmets [BATTLE] arises, shields are split; the shields are battered powerfully. Spears clatter, battle is awakened; far and wide the army is made to redden the battlefield.
‘Dregr él yfir         ógnar ljóma;
gerir drjúgan dyn         dýrra malma.
Gnýr es á glæstum         Gǫndlar himni
ok í hǫrðum hlam         Hlakkar tjǫldum.
Erut skjólsamar         Skǫglar kápur;
hrýtr hagl boga         hlíf í gegnum.
 
‘‘A blizzard of the light of terror [SWORD > BATTLE] is blowing; it causes a mighty din of precious weapons. There is a clashing on the shining heaven of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [SHIELD] and a thudding against the tough awnings of Hlǫkk <valkyrie> [SHIELDS]. The capes of Skǫgul <valkyrie> [MAIL-SHIRTS] are not protective; the hail of bows [ARROWS] pierces through armour.
‘Grenja gránir         garmar slíðra;
bítr fránn freki         ferð halsgerðar.
Rýfr gramr guma         gollorhallir;
bregðr benlogi         byggðum hjarna;
eru brotnar mjǫk         borgir heila.
 
‘‘The grey dogs of scabbards [SWORDS] growl; the piercing wolf of the neck-strap [SWORD] bites the army. The cruel one <sword> breaks men’s halls of the pericardium [BREASTS]; the wound-flame [SWORD] topples the settlements of brains [HEADS]; the strongholds of brains [HEADS] are smashed to pieces.
‘Sék vé vaða,         verðr †mitt† skaða;
syngr sára klungr         snyrtidrengjum.
En á leið fara         lægjǫrn ara
jóð ok ylgjar         enn til sylgjar;
hrapa hernumin         hvártveggja bǫrn.
 
‘‘I see the standards advance, … will harm; the thorn of wounds [SWORD] sings to brave men. And the treacherous children of the eagle and the she-wolf go on their way to the drinking once more; the offspring of both will tumble down, taken in battle.
‘En refr gerir         ráða á galta;
þvíat hann reisa mát         rǫnd við hánum,
svá lætr dǫglingr,         sem hann dauðr séi;
esat lík hulit         lofðungs Breta.
 
‘‘But the fox will prepare to attack the boar; the ruler [the fox] will act as if he were dead, because he [the fox] is unable to raise a shield against him [the boar]; the body of the prince of the Britons [the fox] will not be buried.
‘En galti þat         gengr at reyna;
blæss hann í andlit         ok í augu gram.
En refr við þat         ræðr á galta;
fær hann af hánum         fót inn vinstra
hlust ina hœgri         ok hryggjar nes.
 
‘‘And the boar will go to test that; he will blow in the face and eyes of the ruler. But thereupon the fox will attack the boar; he will take from him the left foot, the right ear, and the headland of the back [TAIL].
‘En í fjalli felsk         fádyggt hǫfuð;
hyggr færtǫpuðr         flærð at œxla.
En villigǫltr         vargi ok birni
segir sárliga         sorg ok missu.
 
‘‘But the untrustworthy person will hide in the mountain; the sheep-destroyer [FOX] will intend to add to his deception. And the wild boar will tell the wolf and the bear of his grievous sorrow and loss.
‘En hraustir brœðr         hugga galta;
kveðask sár munu         sjalfir grœða.
“Fara skulum báðir         fótar at leita
hlustar ok hala þér;         hér bíð þú, galti!”
 
‘‘But the brave brothers will comfort the boar; they will say they themselves will heal its wounds. “We will both go to find your foot, ear, and tail; you wait here, boar!”
‘En refr ofan         renn ór fjalli;
ferr fárhugaðr         finna galta.
Hann býðr sættir         af svikum einum;
kvezk hann mart við svín         mæla vilja.
 
‘‘But the fox will run down from the mountain; the baleful one will go to meet the boar. He will offer a settlement out of pure treachery; he will say he wishes to discuss many things with the pig.
‘“Trú mér, galti!         Munk heill vesa;
svík ek aldregi         svín í tryggðum.
Fund skulum leggja         ok frið gera;
skaltu einn gera         okkar í millim.”
 
‘‘“Trust me, boar! I will be honourable; I will never deceive the pig in truces. We will set a meeting and devise a safe-conduct; you alone will determine between us two.”
‘Es fundr lagiðr         ok friðr samiðr;
koma mildingar         málstefnu til.
En á fundi þeim         flærðir reynask;
banar hertoga         brezkr landreki.
 
‘‘A meeting will be set and a safe-conduct concluded; the leaders will come to the council. But at that meeting treacheries will come to pass; the British ruler will slay the war-leader.
‘Ok svíns at þat         á sik hami
brigðr ok brœðra         bíðr slœgliga.
En, es þeir koma         kosti at fœra,
bítr hann báða tvá         ok banar hlýrum.
 
‘‘And with that he will take on the form of the boar and wait slyly for the brothers. But when they come to bring their offerings he will bite both of them and will slay the siblings.
‘Ok á sjalfan sik         síðan festir
léparðs hǫfuð         lofðungr at þat.
Ræðr hann lýðum         ok lofða fjǫlð;
þar þrýtr þessa         þengils sǫgu.
 
‘‘And with that the ruler will then fix a leopard’s head on himself. He will rule over peoples and a multitude of men; there is the end of this story of the king.
‘Es á hans dǫgum         hǫggormr alinn,
sás fyrðum vill         fjǫrspell gera.
Svá es hann langr,         at of Lundúnir
heiðar hvalr         hring of mælir
ok svá óðr,         at urðar sigðr
umlíðendr         alla gleypir.
 
‘‘In his days a serpent will be born who will bring about an end to life for men. It is so long that the whale of the heath [SNAKE] will measure a circle around London and so ferocious that the sickle of the cairn [SNAKE] will devour all passers-by.
‘Hann Kambríe         kallar sveitir
ok Norðhumru         nánar hjarðir.
Ok ótrautt         Tems at þurru
drengs dolgþorins         drekka lýðir.
 
‘‘It will summon the bands of Cambria and the herds near Northumbria. And without reluctance the people of the battle-resolute warrior will drink the Thames dry.
‘Verða síðar         á sama landi
léparðar sjau         linni bornir.
Þeir hafa brúsa         bǫlgjǫrn hǫfuð;
eru dáðlausir         dǫglings synir.
 
‘‘Seven leopards will be born to the snake later in that same land. They will have the baleful heads of he-goats; the king’s sons will be bereft of [noble] deeds.
‘Þeir flest taka         fljóða sveita
hervígssamir         ok hóra mengi.
Ok sameignar         sín*ar kvánir
gera geirvanir;         geigr es í slíku.’
 
‘‘Belligerent, they will take most bands of women and a multitude of whores. And the spear-accustomed ones will have their women in common; peril lies in that.’
Langt es at tína,         þats lofða vinr
of aldar far         ýtum sagði.
Es fæst í því         fagrt at heyra;
lætk líða þat         ok lok segja.
 
‘It is long to compile what the friend of the people told men concerning the course of the age. Very little of it is pleasant to hear; I will let it go by and tell the conclusion.
‘Verðr á foldu,’         kvað inn fróði halr,
‘styrjǫld mikil,         stórar ógnir,
víg ok vélar,         vargǫld ok kǫld
hrími hvers konar         hjǫrtu lýða.
 
‘‘A great war will come to pass on the earth, great terrors, battle and treacheries, the time of the wolf and hearts of men [will grow] cold with frost of every kind,’ said the wise man.
‘Þá munu gleymask         gálausir menn,
ok sællífir         seggir drekka,
leita at fagna         ok við fé una,
vell at œxla         ok vegsmuni.
 
‘‘Then feckless men will make merry, and pleasure-seeking men take to drink, seek to rejoice and take pleasure in property, to increase their gold and distinctions.
‘Hagr gerisk hǫlða         hættr í mǫrgu;
munat fyrða ráð         fagrt at reyna.
Dyljask drjúgum         draums ívaðendr;
við sjalfa sik         sjásk ekki at.
 
‘‘The state of men will become perilous in many ways; it will not be good to test the conduct of men. Wanderers in a dream, they will be massively deluded; they will not take heed about themselves.
‘Verst es í heimi;         veitat sonr fǫður;
slíta þeir sifjum         svá synir við feðr.
Kannask engi         við kunna menn
né nána frændr         Nirðir bauga.
 
‘‘It will be worst in the world; the son will not know the father; the sons will thus break the bonds of kinship with fathers. No one will recognise familiar people, nor will the Nirðir <gods> of rings [MEN] [recognise] any kinsmen.
‘Hǫfugt es at heyra,         þats of her gerisk;
lifa fénaðar         fyrðar lífi.
Hyggja á þennan         þrágjarnan heim
ok hvers konar         hafna gœzku.
 
‘‘It is grievous to hear what becomes of the people; men will live the life of beasts. They will think of this obdurate world and forsake goodness of every kind.
‘Mun it hvíta silfr         hǫlðum granda,
ok gull gera         gumna blinda.
Himni hafna         en á hauðr séa;
svíkr ofdrykkja         ýta mengi.
 
‘‘The white silver will harm men, and gold make men blind. They will forsake heaven and look on the earth; excessive drinking will undo a multitude of men.
‘Lifir in danska         drótt at holdi,
gerir eyvit sér         ǫlðri at móti.
Því munu in tígnu         tíðmǫrk himins
ljósi sínu         frá lýð snúa.
 
‘‘The Danish people will live on meat, do nothing to resist ale-drinking. Therefore the glorious time-markers of heaven [HEAVENLY BODIES] will turn their light away from the nation.
‘En grund ept þat         gróða hafnar;
né skúr ofan         ór skýjum kemr.
Sól ok máni         sjǫlf annan veg
fara fagrskǫpuð,         en þau fyrr hafi.
 
‘‘But the earth will lose its fecundity after that; nor will the shower descend from the clouds. The sun and the moon themselves, beautifully created, will take a different path from the one they have [taken] previously.
‘Ok þar á hlýrni         heiðar stjǫrnur
má marka því         moldar hvergi.
Sumar fara ǫfgar,         sumar annan veg
af inni gǫmlu         gǫngu sinni.
 
‘‘And for that cause it will not be possible anywhere on earth to distinguish the bright stars there in heaven. Some will go backwards, some on a different path away from their ancient course.
‘Sumar sœkjask at,         en sumar firrask;
bregða ljósi         ok litum fǫgrum.
Berjask vindar         — þau eru veðr mikil —
ok hljóm gera         meðal himintungla.
 
‘‘Some will approach each other and some draw away; change their light and their beautiful colours. The winds will contend and cause tumult between the heavenly bodies; those are great storms.
‘Geisar geimi;         gengr hann upp í lopt;
slíkt es ógurligt         ýta bǫrnum.
Slíkt es ógurligt         upp at telja;
mun in forna mold         af firum verða.’
 
‘‘The sea will surge; it will go up into the sky; such [a thing] is terrifying for the children of men [MANKIND]. Such [a thing] is terrifying to recount; the ancient earth will be emptied of men.’
Væri mart         mǫnnum kynna
ór folkstafs         fornu kvæði.
Ek mun þó         þeygi fleira
Þróttar þings         þollum segja.
 
‘There would be many things to inform men [about] from the old poem of the people-stave [LEADER = Merlin]. I will however not say more to the fir-trees of the assembly of Þróttr <= Óðinn> [BATTLE > WARRIORS].
Þó hefk sagt         seggja kindum
slíkt, es bók         brǫgnum kynnir.
Nýti sér         njótar stála
slíka sǫgn,         ok sésk fyrir.
 
‘Yet I have told the children of men such [things] as the book teaches men. Let the users of weapons [WARRIORS] avail themselves of such sayings and take heed.
Sjám við synð         ok svikaráðum
ok alls kyns         illum verkum.
Drýgjum dôð,         dróttin elskum,
hrindum ǫrt         illu ráði.
 
‘Let us eschew sin and treacherous counsels and all kinds of evil deeds. Let us practise [good] works, love the Lord, reject evil counsel forthwith.
Skrjúpt es líf         lýða barna
und hreggská         heiðar tjaldi.
En lífs lau*n         líða eigi
góð eða ill         gumna mengis.
 
‘Brittle is the life of the children of men [MANKIND] under the storm-worn awning of heaven [SKY/HEAVEN]. But the rewards, good or evil, of the life of the multitude of men [MANKIND] do not pass away.
Gleðjumk ǫll         í góðum hug
ok við ván         vegs ok dýrðar.
Gætum góðs,         gleymum illu,
eflum opt         andar prýði.
 
‘Let us all rejoice in good heart and with the expectation of honour and renown. Let us heed the good, forget the bad, often strengthen the glory of the soul.
Biðjum opt         bragna stilli
œztan eflð         ǫllu hjarta,
at víðfrægr         virða stjóri
dœgr ok dag         dróttar gæti.
 
‘Let us often pray to the Lord of men [= God], highest power, with all our heart that the widely-renowned governor of men [= God] may watch over his following night and day.
Ok herþarfr         hrindi gǫrla
gumna liðs         grandi hverju,
svát til lífs         leiði gǫrva
þjóðar vǫrðr         þetta mengi.
 
‘And may the one beneficent to his people utterly avert all harm to the host of men, so that the protector of the people [= God] may fully lead this multitude to life.
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Information about a text: poem, sequence of stanzas, or prose work

This page is used for different resources. For groups of stanzas such as poems, you will see the verse text and, where published, the translation of each stanza. These are also links to information about the individual stanzas.

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