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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Sex 11II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja 11’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 123-4.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonSexstefja
101112

Gegn ‘The worthy’

1. gegn (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str): reliable

[1] Gegn: Þegn H(47r), Hr(33vb)

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herr ‘troop’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host

[1] herr: hverr H(47r), hver Hr(33vb), 570a

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hugnar ‘it pleases’

hugna (verb): please

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hjaldr ‘of the battle’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrvitjuðr (noun m.)

[2] hjaldr‑: ‘[...]’ 570a

kennings

hjaldrvitjaðar
‘of the battle-frequenter ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-frequenter → WARRIOR
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vitjaðar ‘frequenter’

-vitjuðr (noun m.): [frequenter, seeker] < hjaldrvitjuðr (noun m.)

[2] ‑vitjaðar: ‑vitja(ð)(?) H(47r)

kennings

hjaldrvitjaðar
‘of the battle-frequenter ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-frequenter → WARRIOR
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sitja ‘sit’

sitja (verb): sit

[2] sitja: ‘[...]a’ H(47r), ‘[...]’ 570a

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dolg ‘war’

dolg (noun n.): battle, enemy < dolgstœrandi (noun m.)

[3] dolg‑: dolgr Hr(33vb)

kennings

dýrum dolgstœranda.
‘the excellent war-sweller. ’
   = WARRIOR

the excellent war-sweller. → WARRIOR
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stœranda ‘sweller’

stœrandi (noun m.): [increaser, sweller] < dolgstœrandi (noun m.)

[3] ‑stœranda: ‑stýrandi H(47r), Hr(33vb), ‘stęrra’ 570a

kennings

dýrum dolgstœranda.
‘the excellent war-sweller. ’
   = WARRIOR

the excellent war-sweller. → WARRIOR
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dýrum ‘the excellent’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

kennings

dýrum dolgstœranda.
‘the excellent war-sweller. ’
   = WARRIOR

the excellent war-sweller. → WARRIOR
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vandr ‘loyal’

vandr (adj.): difficult < dróttinvanðr (adj.)

[4] ‑vandr: ‘‑vande’ E

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[4] ok: at Hr(33vb)

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standa ‘stand’

standa (verb): stand

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Lýtr ‘bends’

1. lúta (verb): (strong)

[5] Lýtr: ‘lystr’ 39, ‘lykr’ Hr(33vb)

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folk ‘of the war’

folk (noun n.): people < folkstari (noun m.): battle-starling

kennings

feiti folkstara;
‘to the fattener of the war-starling; ’
   = WARRIOR

the war-starling; → RAVEN
to the fattener of the RAVEN → WARRIOR
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folk ‘of the war’

folk (noun n.): people < folkstari (noun m.): battle-starling

kennings

feiti folkstara;
‘to the fattener of the war-starling; ’
   = WARRIOR

the war-starling; → RAVEN
to the fattener of the RAVEN → WARRIOR
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stara ‘starling’

1. stari (noun m.): starling < folkstari (noun m.): battle-starling

[5] ‑stara: ‘‑stera’ E, ‑starra FskBˣ

kennings

feiti folkstara;
‘to the fattener of the war-starling; ’
   = WARRIOR

the war-starling; → RAVEN
to the fattener of the RAVEN → WARRIOR
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stara ‘starling’

1. stari (noun m.): starling < folkstari (noun m.): battle-starling

[5] ‑stara: ‘‑stera’ E, ‑starra FskBˣ

kennings

feiti folkstara;
‘to the fattener of the war-starling; ’
   = WARRIOR

the war-starling; → RAVEN
to the fattener of the RAVEN → WARRIOR
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feiti ‘to the fattener’

feitir (noun m.): fattener

[5] feiti: ‘fæiti’ E, ‘fe[...]’ 570a, fretti FskAˣ

kennings

feiti folkstara;
‘to the fattener of the war-starling; ’
   = WARRIOR

the war-starling; → RAVEN
to the fattener of the RAVEN → WARRIOR
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fátt ‘little’

3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few

[6] fátt es til nema: ‘[...]ema’ 570a

notes

[5] fátt es til, nema ‘there is little option except’: Lit. ‘there is few/little to hand except’. Kock prints uncontracted fátt es in Skald (as do Finnur Jónsson in Fsk 1902-3 and Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 28; Hkr 1991 has fátt er), and gives reasons in NN §2029. Finnur printed the contracted fátt’s in Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B.

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es ‘there is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[6] fátt es til nema: ‘[...]ema’ 570a

notes

[5] fátt es til, nema ‘there is little option except’: Lit. ‘there is few/little to hand except’. Kock prints uncontracted fátt es in Skald (as do Finnur Jónsson in Fsk 1902-3 and Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 28; Hkr 1991 has fátt er), and gives reasons in NN §2029. Finnur printed the contracted fátt’s in Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B.

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til ‘option’

til (prep.): to

[6] fátt es til nema: ‘[...]ema’ 570a

notes

[5] fátt es til, nema ‘there is little option except’: Lit. ‘there is few/little to hand except’. Kock prints uncontracted fátt es in Skald (as do Finnur Jónsson in Fsk 1902-3 and Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 28; Hkr 1991 has fátt er), and gives reasons in NN §2029. Finnur printed the contracted fátt’s in Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B.

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nema ‘except’

2. nema (conj.): unless

[6] fátt es til nema: ‘[...]ema’ 570a

notes

[5] fátt es til, nema ‘there is little option except’: Lit. ‘there is few/little to hand except’. Kock prints uncontracted fátt es in Skald (as do Finnur Jónsson in Fsk 1902-3 and Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 28; Hkr 1991 has fátt er), and gives reasons in NN §2029. Finnur printed the contracted fátt’s in Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B.

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játta ‘to agree’

játta (verb): [to agree]

[6] játta: so 39, F, H(47r), Hr(33vb), FskBˣ, FskAˣ, játa Kˣ, E, J2ˣ

notes

[6-7] játta þat, sem ‘to agree to what’: Játta normally takes the dat. case, but acc. is also possible (the ÍF 28 note gives an example). Only the Hr scribe seems to have been uneasy enough to write dat. því. The forms játta and játa represented in the mss are both acceptable.  

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þat ‘’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[7] þat: því Hr(33vb)

notes

[6-7] játta þat, sem ‘to agree to what’: Játta normally takes the dat. case, but acc. is also possible (the ÍF 28 note gives an example). Only the Hr scribe seems to have been uneasy enough to write dat. því. The forms játta and játa represented in the mss are both acceptable.  

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sem ‘to what’

sem (conj.): as, which

notes

[6-7] játta þat, sem ‘to agree to what’: Játta normally takes the dat. case, but acc. is also possible (the ÍF 28 note gives an example). Only the Hr scribe seems to have been uneasy enough to write dat. því. The forms játta and játa represented in the mss are both acceptable.  

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þá ‘at the time’

2. þá (adv.): then

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ǫll ‘The whole’

allr (adj.): all

[8] ǫll: valdr H(47r), Hr(33vb), ‘aull .g.’ Hr(44va), ‘ollr’ FskAˣ

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konungr ‘the king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[8] konungr bjóða: ‘k[...]’ Mork

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The context in , which may be the most original source (Fidjestøl 1982, 136), cites the st. as printed above immediately before narrating Haraldr’s assassination of Einarr þambarskelfir ‘Paunch-shaker’ (?), underlining the king’s addiction to power, and Hkr similarly cites it at a pause in the narrative about Einarr. Fsk, Mork and Flat preserve ll. 5-8, the stef ‘refrain’ after st. 22/5-8 in a different context: that of Haraldr’s crushing of the Upplendingar (see sts 19-21) and their submission to his rule. In Fsk, the stef follows st. 22/5-8 with a prose sentence in between, but in Mork and Flat the two helmingar form a single st. H-Hr combines the two approaches: the eight-l. st. printed above is cited in the same context as Hkr, then ll. 5-8 are cited after st. 20 in a narrative of Haraldr’s suppression of the Upplendingar. At this point ll. 5-6 are explicitly identified as the refrain (stefit) in a drápa about Haraldr.

In Mork, st. 22/5-6 is written on the top l. of fol. 11r, with 21/7-8 and the stef continuing in the upper margin, while in Flat the same eight ll. are written continuously in the main text. — [5-8]: These ll. comprise a stef or refrain—the only survivor of the six referred to in Sexstefja’s title—which would have punctuated part of the poem at regular intervals, so that its placing in the prose sources varies (see Context above) and is problematic here.

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