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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóð Yt 6I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 17.

Þjóðólfr ór HviniYnglingatal
567

Ok ‘And’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[1] Ok: ok er 521ˣ

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þess ‘’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[1] þess: Lit. ‘that’. The gen. sg. pron. is the object of hafðak fregit, hence lit. ‘I had often asked about that’. ‘That’ is then explained, using an alternative construction, as of hreyr yngva ‘about the burial place of the prince’. Þess could be construed grammatically with yngva, hence ‘of that prince’, but combining words from different lines in such a way would go against the stylistic practice of Yt.

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opt ‘often’

opt (adv.): often

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yngva ‘of the prince’

Yngvi (noun m.): Yngvi, prince

notes

[2] yngva ‘of the prince’: On the word yngvi, see Introduction.

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hreyr ‘the burial place’

hreyr (noun ?): cairn

[2] hreyr: so J2ˣ, R685ˣ, hrør Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ, reyr F

notes

[2] hreyr (m. acc. sg.) ‘the burial place’: The mss offer both hrør ‘corpse’ (adopted in Skj B, Hkr 1893-1901 and ÍF 26) and hreyr ‘burial place, cairn’ (adopted in Yt 1925, Skald, Hkr 1991 and this edn). Noreen (1912a, 3-5) argues convincingly that the mss’ hreyr might be an older form of OIcel. reyrr ‘cairn’, and this may also occur as a variant reading in Eyv Hál 5/6. The remainder of the stanza also favours ‘burial place, cairn’ rather than ‘corpse’, since the opening question solicits the location Fýrisvellir as its answer.

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fregin ‘’

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fregit ‘asked’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

[4] fregit: fregin R685ˣ

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hafða[...] ‘’

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hafðak ‘I had’

hafa (verb): have

[4] hafðak (‘ec hafða’): ‘hafða[...]’ papp18ˣ, hafða 521ˣ, haf þat R685ˣ

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dómrar ‘’

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Dómarr ‘Dómarr’

Dómarr (noun m.): Dómarr

[5] Dómarr: ‘domrar’ F

notes

[5] Dómarr: For the first element of this name see Note to st. 5/8. The second element of the name, -arr, can be traced to *-harjaz ‘warrior’, as in Hávarr and Óttarr (Turville-Petre 1978-9, 64).

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dynjanda ‘the resounding’

dynja (verb; °dunði): resound

kennings

dynjanda bana Hôalfs.
‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr. ’
   = FIRE

the resounding slayer of Hálfr. → FIRE

notes

[6-7] dynjanda bana Hôalfs ‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr <legendary king> [FIRE]’: This kenning originates from the legend of Hálfr, who is burned alive inside a house along with his men (Hálf, FSGJ 2, 93-134).

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bana ‘slayer’

bani (noun m.; °-a; -ar): death, killer

kennings

dynjanda bana Hôalfs.
‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr. ’
   = FIRE

the resounding slayer of Hálfr. → FIRE

notes

[6-7] dynjanda bana Hôalfs ‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr <legendary king> [FIRE]’: This kenning originates from the legend of Hálfr, who is burned alive inside a house along with his men (Hálf, FSGJ 2, 93-134).

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Hôalfs ‘of Hálfr’

Hálfr (noun m.): Hálfr

[7] Hôalfs: hafs F

kennings

dynjanda bana Hôalfs.
‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr. ’
   = FIRE

the resounding slayer of Hálfr. → FIRE

notes

[6-7] dynjanda bana Hôalfs ‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr <legendary king> [FIRE]’: This kenning originates from the legend of Hálfr, who is burned alive inside a house along with his men (Hálf, FSGJ 2, 93-134). — [7] Hôalfs ‘of Hálfr <legendary king>’: The mss (exept F) have ‘halfs’, but for metrical reasons most eds have printed a presumed older, etymological form, Hôalfs, deriving from *Hô-alfr (Yng 1912) or Haþuwulafʀ (Noreen 1890, 315-16). The name remains bisyllabic even in later poetry, for vowel contraction was a late development which took place primarily after 1100 (see Finnur Jónsson 1921a, 261).

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Hôalfs ‘of Hálfr’

Hálfr (noun m.): Hálfr

[7] Hôalfs: hafs F

kennings

dynjanda bana Hôalfs.
‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr. ’
   = FIRE

the resounding slayer of Hálfr. → FIRE

notes

[6-7] dynjanda bana Hôalfs ‘the resounding slayer of Hálfr <legendary king> [FIRE]’: This kenning originates from the legend of Hálfr, who is burned alive inside a house along with his men (Hálf, FSGJ 2, 93-134). — [7] Hôalfs ‘of Hálfr <legendary king>’: The mss (exept F) have ‘halfs’, but for metrical reasons most eds have printed a presumed older, etymological form, Hôalfs, deriving from *Hô-alfr (Yng 1912) or Haþuwulafʀ (Noreen 1890, 315-16). The name remains bisyllabic even in later poetry, for vowel contraction was a late development which took place primarily after 1100 (see Finnur Jónsson 1921a, 261).

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‘Now’

nú (adv.): now

notes

[9] núk veit þat ‘now I know’: Lit. ‘now I know it’. As with l. 1 (see Note), the mss contain an extra syllable, ek, which Sievers (1879, 294) eliminated by presenting it as a clitic attached to the verb, hence Nú þat veitk. Åkerlund (1939, 86) and this edn, on the other hand, treat ek as a clitic attached to the adv. .

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k ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[9] núk veit þat ‘now I know’: Lit. ‘now I know it’. As with l. 1 (see Note), the mss contain an extra syllable, ek, which Sievers (1879, 294) eliminated by presenting it as a clitic attached to the verb, hence Nú þat veitk. Åkerlund (1939, 86) and this edn, on the other hand, treat ek as a clitic attached to the adv. .

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þat ‘’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[9] núk veit þat ‘now I know’: Lit. ‘now I know it’. As with l. 1 (see Note), the mss contain an extra syllable, ek, which Sievers (1879, 294) eliminated by presenting it as a clitic attached to the verb, hence Nú þat veitk. Åkerlund (1939, 86) and this edn, on the other hand, treat ek as a clitic attached to the adv. .

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veit ‘know’

1. vita (verb): know

notes

[9] núk veit þat ‘now I know’: Lit. ‘now I know it’. As with l. 1 (see Note), the mss contain an extra syllable, ek, which Sievers (1879, 294) eliminated by presenting it as a clitic attached to the verb, hence Nú þat veitk. Åkerlund (1939, 86) and this edn, on the other hand, treat ek as a clitic attached to the adv. .

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verk ‘the pain’

verkr (noun m.; °-jar, dat. -; -ir): pain < verkbitinn (adj.)

kennings

verkbitinn niðr Fjǫlnis
‘the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir ’
   = Dómarr

the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir → Dómarr
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bitinn ‘bitten’

-bitinn (adj.): [bitten] < verkbitinn (adj.)

kennings

verkbitinn niðr Fjǫlnis
‘the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir ’
   = Dómarr

the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir → Dómarr
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Fjǫlnis ‘of Fjǫlnir’

Fjǫlnir (noun m.): Fjǫlnir

kennings

verkbitinn niðr Fjǫlnis
‘the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir ’
   = Dómarr

the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir → Dómarr

notes

[11] Fjǫlnis ‘of Fjǫlnir <ancestor of the Ynglingar>’: See st. 1.

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niðr ‘descendant’

1. niðr (noun m.; °-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði): son, kinsman, relative

kennings

verkbitinn niðr Fjǫlnis
‘the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir ’
   = Dómarr

the pain-bitten descendant of Fjǫlnir → Dómarr
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við ‘near’

2. við (prep.): with, against

notes

[12] við Fýri ‘near Fyrisån’: The river Fyrisån, which runs through Uppsala, Sweden. The form of the name, with its long ý, was suggested by Sievers (1879, 291) and has been retained by all subsequent eds except for Noreen (Yt 1925), who reads Fyrue (normalised Fyrvi).

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Fýri ‘Fyrisån’

Fýri (noun f.): [Fyrisån]

notes

[12] við Fýri ‘near Fyrisån’: The river Fyrisån, which runs through Uppsala, Sweden. The form of the name, with its long ý, was suggested by Sievers (1879, 291) and has been retained by all subsequent eds except for Noreen (Yt 1925), who reads Fyrue (normalised Fyrvi).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After a long reign, a time of peace and well-being for the country, King Dómarr, son of Dómaldi, succumbs to an illness and is brought to Fýrisvellir and cremated on the banks of the river. He is said to be commemorated by memorial stones (bautasteinar; on these see Holmqvist 1976).

[1]: The first line reads Ok ek þess opt in the mss, which, with four syllables rather than three, is unmetrical. Thus Sievers (1879, 294) and most subsequent eds delete ek, which is duplicated in hafðak ‘I had’, as does the present edn (see ‘Normalisation on metrical grounds’ in the General Introduction for the deletion of superfluous pronouns as part of the normalisation process). Schück (1905-10, 28-9) on the other hand dispenses with ok ‘and’, hence Ek þess opt. Nerman (Yt 1914, 122) retains the ms. reading and interprets it as as a Type A-line with resolution in metrical position 1.

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