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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Jór Send 5I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Jórunn skáldmær, Sendibítr 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 149.

Jórunn skáldmærSendibítr
45

hringa ‘of rings’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

Stríðir hringa
‘The enemy of rings ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

The enemy of rings → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[1] stríðir hringa ‘the enemy of rings [GENEROUS MAN]’: This type of kenning would most often refer to a ruler, but it is here used of the poet Guthormr, who expects only the reconciliation of the kings as his reward for the poem (see st. 4/8 and Introduction above). The ms. reading, implying a hróðr stríðis hringa ‘poem of the generous man’, cannot be made to make sense as it leaves the clause without a subject.

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stríðis ‘’

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stríðir ‘The enemy’

stríðir (noun m.): opponent, fighter

[1] stríðir: stríðis 75c

kennings

Stríðir hringa
‘The enemy of rings ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

The enemy of rings → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[1] stríðir hringa ‘the enemy of rings [GENEROUS MAN]’: This type of kenning would most often refer to a ruler, but it is here used of the poet Guthormr, who expects only the reconciliation of the kings as his reward for the poem (see st. 4/8 and Introduction above). The ms. reading, implying a hróðr stríðis hringa ‘poem of the generous man’, cannot be made to make sense as it leaves the clause without a subject.

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har̄ ‘’

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Haralds ‘Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

[2] Haralds: ‘har̄’ 75c

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framkveðins ‘’

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framm ‘’

fram (adv.): out, forth, forwards, away

[2] framm kveðinn: framkveðins 75c

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framkveðins ‘’

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kveðinn ‘’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[2] framm kveðinn: framkveðins 75c

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Goðþormr ‘Guthormr’

Guthormr: Gutthormr, Guthormr

notes

[3] Goðþormr ‘Guthormr’: Given the uncertainties about the etymology of this name (see the Biography of Guthormr sindri), and about the dating of Send, the authentic form for this stanza cannot be determined with any certainty.

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hlaut ‘got’

hljóta (verb): alot, gain

[3] hlaut: laut 75c

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af ‘from the’

af (prep.): from

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geti ‘’

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gæti ‘sovereign’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

[3] gæti: ‘geti’ 75c

notes

[3] gæti ‘the sovereign’: More lit., ‘guardian, protector’. Such an agent noun would normally be followed by a determinant in the gen. (cf. Meissner 294), but here it appears to be used as a half-kenning.

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góð ‘good’

góðr (adj.): good

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Raunframra ‘truly successful’

raunframr (adj.): [truly successful]

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runnr ‘The tree’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

kennings

Runnr gunnar
‘The tree of battle ’
   = WARRIOR

The tree of battle → WARRIOR
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skjǫldunga ‘rulers’

skjǫldungr (noun m.): king

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gunnar ‘of battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle

kennings

Runnr gunnar
‘The tree of battle ’
   = WARRIOR

The tree of battle → WARRIOR
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áðr ‘previously’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

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hjǫrva ‘of swords’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

hreggs hjǫrva.
‘a storm of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

a storm of swords. → BATTLE
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hreggs ‘a storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

kennings

hreggs hjǫrva.
‘a storm of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

a storm of swords. → BATTLE
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dǫglinga ‘princes’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

notes

[8] tveggja dǫglinga ‘of the two princes’: Haraldr hárfagri and his son Hálfdan svarti; see Introduction.

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tveggja ‘two’

tveir (num. cardinal): two

notes

[8] tveggja dǫglinga ‘of the two princes’: Haraldr hárfagri and his son Hálfdan svarti; see Introduction.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As for sts 2 and 3.

[7-8]: As Kock (NN §1051) points out, ‘the army had previously prepared for the battle of the two princes’ is equally possible. — [8]: This line echoes Þhorn Gldr 3/8, with a similar battle context, but, as de Vries (1964-7, I, 151) notes, they mean quite different things.

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