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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 21I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 21’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 921.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
202122

Ítr ‘The splendid’

ítr (adj.): glorious

[1] Ítr: þá er Flat

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einkar ‘long ago extremely’

einkar (adv.): extremely

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snarla ‘swiftly’

1. snarla (adv.): quickly

[1] snarla: ‘sniarla’ Bb(100rb)

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þrek ‘belonging to the strong’

þrek (noun n.): courage, strength < þrekmaðr (noun m.)

[3] þrek‑: so 53, Flat, þess Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(100rb)

notes

[3] þrekmanns ‘belonging to the strong man’: This, the reading of 53 and Flat, is also adopted in previous eds. Þrek- ‘strong’ is strictly the noun þrek n. ‘strength’. Þrekmanns is taken here as part of an informal gen. construction with storms þremja ‘of the storm of swords [BATTLE]’. The phrase could perhaps be read as a warrior-kenning, but it would not match known kenning patterns. The alternative reading, þess manns ‘of that man’, yields less good sense, and þess, being an article, would be a less suitable bearer of metrical stress. 

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manns ‘man’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < þrekmaðr (noun m.)

notes

[3] þrekmanns ‘belonging to the strong man’: This, the reading of 53 and Flat, is also adopted in previous eds. Þrek- ‘strong’ is strictly the noun þrek n. ‘strength’. Þrekmanns is taken here as part of an informal gen. construction with storms þremja ‘of the storm of swords [BATTLE]’. The phrase could perhaps be read as a warrior-kenning, but it would not match known kenning patterns. The alternative reading, þess manns ‘of that man’, yields less good sense, and þess, being an article, would be a less suitable bearer of metrical stress. 

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þriðja ‘for the third’

þriði (num. ordinal): third

notes

[3] þriðja sinni ‘for the third time’: Eiríkr’s advance is the third phase in the attack on Óláfr; cf. the Note to st. 21/6.

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sinni ‘time’

2. sinni (noun n.; °-s;): time, occasion; company, following

notes

[3] þriðja sinni ‘for the third time’: Eiríkr’s advance is the third phase in the attack on Óláfr; cf. the Note to st. 21/6.

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þremja ‘of swords’

þremjar (noun f.): parts of a sword?

[4] þremja: so 53, Flat, þrenna Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(100rb)

kennings

storms þremja.
‘of the storm of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the storm of swords. → BATTLE

notes

[4] storms þremja ‘of the storm of swords [BATTLE]’: The 53 reading þremja is adopted here, since þrenna ‘three, threefold’ is incomprehensible in context. For þremjar (f. pl.) ‘sword’, lit. perhaps ‘cutters’, see Note to st. 10/1. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) takes the battle-kenning with ítr ‘splendid’, hence ‘splendid in battle’ (cf., e.g., Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’). Konráð Gíslason (1895-7), Kock (NN §§1182, 2448A) and this edn instead take ítr with jarl ‘jarl’. 

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storms ‘of the storm’

stormr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): storm

kennings

storms þremja.
‘of the storm of swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the storm of swords. → BATTLE

notes

[4] storms þremja ‘of the storm of swords [BATTLE]’: The 53 reading þremja is adopted here, since þrenna ‘three, threefold’ is incomprehensible in context. For þremjar (f. pl.) ‘sword’, lit. perhaps ‘cutters’, see Note to st. 10/1. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) takes the battle-kenning with ítr ‘splendid’, hence ‘splendid in battle’ (cf., e.g., Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’). Konráð Gíslason (1895-7), Kock (NN §§1182, 2448A) and this edn instead take ítr with jarl ‘jarl’. 

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Ormi ‘the Ormr (‘Serpent’)’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

notes

[4] Ormi ‘the Ormr (“Serpent”)’: Óláfr’s famous longship; see Note to st. 18/2. 

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bryn ‘of the mail-shirt’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat < brynskíð (noun f.)

kennings

heiptargjǫrnum viðum brynskíðs;
‘on the vengeful trees of the mail-shirt-ski; ’
   = WARRIORS

the mail-shirt-ski; → SWORD
on the vengeful trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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bryn ‘of the mail-shirt’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat < brynskíð (noun f.)

kennings

heiptargjǫrnum viðum brynskíðs;
‘on the vengeful trees of the mail-shirt-ski; ’
   = WARRIORS

the mail-shirt-ski; → SWORD
on the vengeful trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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skíðs ‘ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < brynskíð (noun f.)

[6] ‑skíðs: so 61, Flat, ‘‑skidiss’ Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(101ra)

kennings

heiptargjǫrnum viðum brynskíðs;
‘on the vengeful trees of the mail-shirt-ski; ’
   = WARRIORS

the mail-shirt-ski; → SWORD
on the vengeful trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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skíðs ‘ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < brynskíð (noun f.)

[6] ‑skíðs: so 61, Flat, ‘‑skidiss’ Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(101ra)

kennings

heiptargjǫrnum viðum brynskíðs;
‘on the vengeful trees of the mail-shirt-ski; ’
   = WARRIORS

the mail-shirt-ski; → SWORD
on the vengeful trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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viðum ‘trees’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree

kennings

heiptargjǫrnum viðum brynskíðs;
‘on the vengeful trees of the mail-shirt-ski; ’
   = WARRIORS

the mail-shirt-ski; → SWORD
on the vengeful trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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heiptargjǫrnum ‘on the vengeful’

heiftargjarn (adj.): vengeance-eager

kennings

heiptargjǫrnum viðum brynskíðs;
‘on the vengeful trees of the mail-shirt-ski; ’
   = WARRIORS

the mail-shirt-ski; → SWORD
on the vengeful trees of the SWORD → WARRIORS
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Hann ‘He’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

notes

[8]:  For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[8] vas (‘var’): er 61, 54, Bb(101ra), Flat

notes

[8]:  For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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ríkstr ‘the mightiest’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

[8] ríkstr: so 61, 54, Bb(101ra), fremstr Bb(112ra), æztr Flat

notes

[8]:  For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8. — [8] ríkstr ‘mightiest’: The reading of 61, 54, Bb(101ra); the refrain is suddenly altered in both Bb(112ra) and Flat, and although the meaning is similar, their readings are clearly errors.

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ríkstr ‘the mightiest’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

[8] ríkstr: so 61, 54, Bb(101ra), fremstr Bb(112ra), æztr Flat

notes

[8]:  For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8. — [8] ríkstr ‘mightiest’: The reading of 61, 54, Bb(101ra); the refrain is suddenly altered in both Bb(112ra) and Flat, and although the meaning is similar, their readings are clearly errors.

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konung ‘of royal’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king < konungmaðr (noun m.): king

[8] konung‑: kóng 54, konungs Flat

notes

[8]:  For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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manna ‘men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < konungmaðr (noun m.): king

notes

[8]:  For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The first helmingr is quoted at the point where all of Óláfr’s ships have been cleared but for Ormr inn langi, which Eiríkr attacks with five ships. The second is quoted when Eiríkr boards the ship with his men, fights the brave Hyrningr, a kinsman-in-law of Óláfr, and is forced to retreat.

[7] Hyrningr: Hyrningr and his brother Þorgeirr (no patronymic given) are portrayed in Hkr (ÍF 26, 302-3, 334-5, 348) as from Vík (Viken) and as kinsmen-in-law and close supporters of Óláfr.

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