Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Eil Þdr 20III

Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa 20’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 119.

Eilífr GoðrúnarsonÞórsdrápa
192021

Glaums ‘of Glaumr’

2. Glaumr (noun m.): Glaumr

kennings

niðjum Glaums;
‘the descendants of Glaumr; ’
   = GIANTS

the descendants of Glaumr; → GIANTS

notes

[1] Glaums ‘of Glaumr <giant>’: Because the kenning niðjum Glaums ‘descendants of Glaumr’ refers to giants, Glaumr must be a giant’s name, albeit one that is not otherwise attested (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399). Reichardt (1948, 386) suggests replacing it with Glámr, but all mss have Glaumr, and emendation does not appear to be warranted here.

Close

niðjum ‘the descendants’

1. niðr (noun m.; °-s; niðjar/niðir, acc. niði): son, kinsman, relative

kennings

niðjum Glaums;
‘the descendants of Glaumr; ’
   = GIANTS

the descendants of Glaumr; → GIANTS
Close

gǫrva ‘totally’

gǫrva (adv.): fully

Close

gramr ‘The ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

Close

með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

notes

[2] með dreyrgum hamri ‘with the bloody hammer’: Reichardt (1948, 385-6) notes that Þórr now suddenly has his hammer, which he had left behind in accordance with Loki’s arrangement with the giants. The justification for this sudden appearance is that the attribute ‘hammer’ identifies Þórr independently of any context (so Kiil 1956, 158-9). Kiil’s solution is preferable to Reichardt’s (ibid.), who combines gǫrva with hamri to get ‘with the fish of the armaments’, a kenning that, according to him, refers to the staff Gríðarvǫlr. According to Clunies Ross (1981, 388), in whose view this myth represents the initiation of the young god (see Introduction) the hammer is identical with the red-hot iron from the previous stanza. Iron and hammer, in her view, are one and the same weapon, i.e. Þórr’s hammer Mjǫllnir, which he first obtains in his struggle against Geirrøðr (similarly Davidson 1983, 657 who thinks that the giants themselves supplied Þórr with his weapon).

Close

dreyrgum ‘the bloody’

dreyrugr (adj.; °dreyrgan/dreyrugan; superl. dreyrgastr): bloody

notes

[2] með dreyrgum hamri ‘with the bloody hammer’: Reichardt (1948, 385-6) notes that Þórr now suddenly has his hammer, which he had left behind in accordance with Loki’s arrangement with the giants. The justification for this sudden appearance is that the attribute ‘hammer’ identifies Þórr independently of any context (so Kiil 1956, 158-9). Kiil’s solution is preferable to Reichardt’s (ibid.), who combines gǫrva with hamri to get ‘with the fish of the armaments’, a kenning that, according to him, refers to the staff Gríðarvǫlr. According to Clunies Ross (1981, 388), in whose view this myth represents the initiation of the young god (see Introduction) the hammer is identical with the red-hot iron from the previous stanza. Iron and hammer, in her view, are one and the same weapon, i.e. Þórr’s hammer Mjǫllnir, which he first obtains in his struggle against Geirrøðr (similarly Davidson 1983, 657 who thinks that the giants themselves supplied Þórr with his weapon).

Close

hamri ‘hammer [= Þórr]’

1. hamarr (noun m.; °-s, dat. hamri; hamrar): hammer, cliff

notes

[2] með dreyrgum hamri ‘with the bloody hammer’: Reichardt (1948, 385-6) notes that Þórr now suddenly has his hammer, which he had left behind in accordance with Loki’s arrangement with the giants. The justification for this sudden appearance is that the attribute ‘hammer’ identifies Þórr independently of any context (so Kiil 1956, 158-9). Kiil’s solution is preferable to Reichardt’s (ibid.), who combines gǫrva with hamri to get ‘with the fish of the armaments’, a kenning that, according to him, refers to the staff Gríðarvǫlr. According to Clunies Ross (1981, 388), in whose view this myth represents the initiation of the young god (see Introduction) the hammer is identical with the red-hot iron from the previous stanza. Iron and hammer, in her view, are one and the same weapon, i.e. Þórr’s hammer Mjǫllnir, which he first obtains in his struggle against Geirrøðr (similarly Davidson 1983, 657 who thinks that the giants themselves supplied Þórr with his weapon).

Close

sal ‘the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < salvaniðr (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

vanið ‘visitor’

vaniðr (adj./verb p.p.): familiar one, visitor < salvaniðr (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

Synjar ‘of the Syn’

Syn (noun f.; °; -jar): [Syn [lady], Syn]

[3] Synjar: ‘syniot’ Tˣ, synja W

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

Synjar ‘of the Syn’

Syn (noun f.; °; -jar): [Syn [lady], Syn]

[3] Synjar: ‘syniot’ Tˣ, synja W

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

hlaut ‘[he] gained’

hljóta (verb): alot, gain

Close

arin ‘of the hearth-stone’

arinn (noun m.; °arins, dat. arni): [stone, hearth] < 1. arinbraut (noun f.)

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

arin ‘of the hearth-stone’

arinn (noun m.; °arins, dat. arni): [stone, hearth] < 1. arinbraut (noun f.)

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

arin ‘of the hearth-stone’

arinn (noun m.; °arins, dat. arni): [stone, hearth] < 1. arinbraut (noun f.)

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

brautar ‘path’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < 1. arinbraut (noun f.)

[4] ‑brautar: ‘brꜹti’ R, ‘bauti’ Tˣ, W

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

brautar ‘path’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < 1. arinbraut (noun f.)

[4] ‑brautar: ‘brꜹti’ R, ‘bauti’ Tˣ, W

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

brautar ‘path’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away < 1. arinbraut (noun f.)

[4] ‑brautar: ‘brꜹti’ R, ‘bauti’ Tˣ, W

kennings

salvanið Synjar arinbrautar.
‘the hall-visitor of the Syn of the hearth-stone-path. ’
   = GIANT

the hearth-stone-path. → MOUNTAINS
the Syn of MOUNTAINS → GIANTESS
the hall-visitor of GIANTESS → GIANT

notes

[3, 4] salvanið Synjar arinbrautar ‘the hall-visitor of the Syn <goddess> of the hearth-stone-path [MOUNTAINS > GIANTESS > GIANT]’: This extended giant-kenning is formed according to the pattern ‘visitor of the giantess’. The base-word salvaniðr lit. means ‘one accustomed to the hall’. ‘Giantess’ is rendered according to the familiar pattern ‘goddess of the mountain’ in which ‘mountain’ is paraphrased by the kenning ‘path (i.e. whereabouts) of the hearth-stone’. Hearths were made of stone slabs; hence arinn denotes ‘stone’. The emendation of ‘brꜹti’ (R) to ‑brautar gen. is necessary to provide a determinant ‘stone’ or ‘mountain’ for Syn, a goddess (cf. Reichardt 1948, 386-7). Earlier solutions are not satisfactory, either because they employ tmesis extensively (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399; Skj B: arin-Synjar salvanið-bauti ‘the killer of the visitor of stone-Syn’) or because of multiple emendations and incoherent syntax. Among the latter are Kock’s (NN §467) of Synjar salvaniðs Arinbauta ‘over the Syn <goddess> of the one who is used to the hall of Arinbauti (the hearth-hammerer)’ and Kiil’s (1956, 160) arinbauti laut of sigr salvaniðs Synjar ‘Arinbauti [stone-putter = Geirrøðr] crashed through the victory of the one who is used to the hall of Syn [= Þórr]’.

Close

Kom ‘came’

koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

notes

[5] kom at ‘came at’: It is unusual to find a finite verb and a prep. in anacrusis, but it is not unattested (see also Kuhn 1983, 103).

Close

at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[5] kom at ‘came at’: It is unusual to find a finite verb and a prep. in anacrusis, but it is not unattested (see also Kuhn 1983, 103).

Close

tvíviðar ‘of the bow’

tvíviðr (noun m.): [bow]

kennings

tívi tvíviðar,
‘the god of the bow, ’
   = WARRIOR = Geirrøðr

the god of the bow, → WARRIOR = Geirrøðr

notes

[5] tívi tvíviðar ‘the god of the bow [WARRIOR = Geirrøðr]’: Tvíviðr lit. means ‘double-wood’ (cf. Þul Boga l. 2) and refers to a bow put together from two pieces of wood (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 29; all subsequent eds). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 399) sees a Þórr-kenning in the combination tollur tvíviðar, but Reichardt (1948, 387) rightly disputes this, because ‘of the bow’ makes good sense as a determinant in a kenning for Geirrøðr (so also Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 29; Kiil 1956, 162) since Geirrøðr has already been described as œgir almtaugar ‘the terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR = Geirrøðr]’ (st. 16/5). Cf. also st. 12/7, in which ‘giants’ are referred to periphrastically as ‘relatives of the markswoman [= Skaði]’.

Close

tívi ‘the god’

tívar (noun m.): gods

[5] tívi: ‘ty(v)i’(?) W

kennings

tívi tvíviðar,
‘the god of the bow, ’
   = WARRIOR = Geirrøðr

the god of the bow, → WARRIOR = Geirrøðr

notes

[5] tívi tvíviðar ‘the god of the bow [WARRIOR = Geirrøðr]’: Tvíviðr lit. means ‘double-wood’ (cf. Þul Boga l. 2) and refers to a bow put together from two pieces of wood (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 29; all subsequent eds). Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 399) sees a Þórr-kenning in the combination tollur tvíviðar, but Reichardt (1948, 387) rightly disputes this, because ‘of the bow’ makes good sense as a determinant in a kenning for Geirrøðr (so also Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 29; Kiil 1956, 162) since Geirrøðr has already been described as œgir almtaugar ‘the terrifier of the bow-string [WARRIOR = Geirrøðr]’ (st. 16/5). Cf. also st. 12/7, in which ‘giants’ are referred to periphrastically as ‘relatives of the markswoman [= Skaði]’.

Close

tollurr ‘the pole’

tollurr (noun m.): [pole]

[6] tollurr: tollur all

kennings

tollurr karms
‘the pole of the wagon-cab ’
   = CHARIOTEER = Þórr

the pole of the wagon-cab → CHARIOTEER = Þórr

notes

[6] tollurr karms ‘the pole of the wagon-cab [CHARIOTEER = Þórr]’: Because tollurr is the subject of the subordinate clause, tollur (all mss) has been emended to tollurr. Tollurr is usually interpreted either as an unknown tree-name or as a word for ‘stick’; cf. ModSwed. tolle ‘shoot, scion’, MLG toll ‘twig’ (AEW: tollurr). Here it functions as the base-word in a man-kenning. Karmr has several meanings: ‘frame’, ‘vessel’, ‘container’ or ‘parapet’. There is only one certain attestation of karmr in the sense ‘wagon, cart’ (see ONP: karmr); cf. also ModNorw. karm ‘sides of a wagon-cab’ or ‘back rest on a sled’. Hence karmr could refer to a part of a wagon, and it is taken here as pars pro toto for ‘wagon’. The wagon excavated in Oseberg has a removable cab or container, and such a wagon is also depicted on the tapestry found there. Moreover, the C10th wagon-boxes found in Denmark and Sweden, which were used as coffins, are of the same shape as the Oseberg wagon (Eisenschmidt 2006, 73-8). The whole kenning means ‘charioteer’, then; this unambiguously points to the god Þórr and his attribute, the wagon pulled by two goats.

Close

karms ‘of the wagon-cab’

karmr (noun m.; °; -ar): [wagon-box]

kennings

tollurr karms
‘the pole of the wagon-cab ’
   = CHARIOTEER = Þórr

the pole of the wagon-cab → CHARIOTEER = Þórr

notes

[6] tollurr karms ‘the pole of the wagon-cab [CHARIOTEER = Þórr]’: Because tollurr is the subject of the subordinate clause, tollur (all mss) has been emended to tollurr. Tollurr is usually interpreted either as an unknown tree-name or as a word for ‘stick’; cf. ModSwed. tolle ‘shoot, scion’, MLG toll ‘twig’ (AEW: tollurr). Here it functions as the base-word in a man-kenning. Karmr has several meanings: ‘frame’, ‘vessel’, ‘container’ or ‘parapet’. There is only one certain attestation of karmr in the sense ‘wagon, cart’ (see ONP: karmr); cf. also ModNorw. karm ‘sides of a wagon-cab’ or ‘back rest on a sled’. Hence karmr could refer to a part of a wagon, and it is taken here as pars pro toto for ‘wagon’. The wagon excavated in Oseberg has a removable cab or container, and such a wagon is also depicted on the tapestry found there. Moreover, the C10th wagon-boxes found in Denmark and Sweden, which were used as coffins, are of the same shape as the Oseberg wagon (Eisenschmidt 2006, 73-8). The whole kenning means ‘charioteer’, then; this unambiguously points to the god Þórr and his attribute, the wagon pulled by two goats.

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

[6] þás: sá er all

Close

brautar ‘road’

1. braut (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; -ir): path, way; away

kennings

bekkbrautar
‘of the bench-road ’
   = HOUSE

the bench-road → HOUSE
Close

bekk ‘of the bench’

1. bekkr (noun m.; °-jar/-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): bench

kennings

bekkbrautar
‘of the bench-road ’
   = HOUSE

the bench-road → HOUSE
Close

jǫtuns ‘of the giant’

jǫtunn (noun m.; °jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar): giant

[8] jǫtuns: ‘iotvn(s)’(?) W

Close

rekka ‘on the warriors’

rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

[8] rekka: ‘[…]kka’ W

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 1.

[1]: This line lacks skothending. Kock attempts to restore the hending by emending gǫrvar ‘totally’ to gumna ‘of the men’ (NN §466) or griðja ‘of the comrades’ (NN §3056). Both emendations change the text significantly and are hardly justified by a missing hending. Reichardt (1948, 386) suggests reversing the order of niðjum and fór to create hending on gǫrva and fór. In that case, however, the hending falls on a dip, which rarely happens. — [5-8]: All earlier interpretations of this helmingr are problematic because of their many emendations and syntactic difficulties; Reichardt (1948, 387-8) believes that the half-stanza cannot be interpreted. The present interpretation proceeds from the fact that fall n. nom./acc. sg. ‘fall’ (l. 8) must be either the subject of the main clause or the acc. object of a verb. Since there is no verb in the helmingr which requires an acc., fall must be the subject of the main clause (cf. Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 399 and Skj B; NN §468; Reichardt 1948, 388), and that fits well with kom at tívi tvíviðar ‘came to the god of the bow [WARRIOR = Geirrøðr]’ (l. 5). However, fall as the subject of the main clause is difficult to reconcile with the subsequent rel. clause beginning with sás (m. nom. sg.), which can only refer to an antecedent m. nom. noun. Therefore sás has been emended to þás ‘when’. Tollurr karms ‘the pole of the wagon-box [CHARIOTEER = Þórr]’ (l. 6) is then the subject of the subordinate clause and is combined with of beitti harmi ‘inflicted violence on’ (ll. 6, 7). Rekka jǫtuns ‘the warriors of the giant’ (l. 8) is taken as the object of beitti harmi. This construction avoids the awkward syntactic fragmentation of the last line as e.g. in Skj B. Finally, fall ‘fall’ needs a qualifier, and this is provided by the remaining words brautar liðs (l. 7) and bekk (l. 8). Here tmesis is unavoidable: bekk- ‘bench’ is combined with ‑brautar ‘of the road’ to form the house-kenning ‘of the bench-road’ following the pattern ‘place where sth. can be found’. Joined with liðs ‘of the retinue’, this expression designates the giants, the followers of Geirrøðr.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.