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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eil Þdr 14III

Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Eilífr Goðrúnarson, Þórsdrápa 14’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 105.

Eilífr GoðrúnarsonÞórsdrápa
131415

þars ‘when’

(not checked:)
þars (conj.): where

[1] þars: Þeirs all

notes

[1] þars ‘when’: Like most previous eds (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1851, 30; Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 392; Skj B; NN §460), the present edn emends þeirs ‘they who’ to þars, since no word in the preceding stanza can serve as the antecedent of the rel. Hence the first helmingr of this stanza consists of a subordinate clause (cf. NN §2514 D; Reichardt 1948, 369); comparable cases in Þdr are unz ‘until’ (st. 10/1-4) and svát ‘so that’ (st. 18/1-4). Reichardt (1948, 371-2) suggested the emendation þeir* to get a main clause whose subject would be þeir* hugumbornir ‘the ones born with courage’, which reduces the skothending to just one consonant (þeir : hers-). Whereas such a rhyme is not impossible, the separation of the dem. pron. þeir (l. 1) and the adj. with which it belongs syntactically (hugumbornir, l. 2) must be rejected.

Close

í ‘into’

(not checked:)
í (prep.): in, into

notes

[1, 4] í hringbalka* ‘into the circular rooms’: Beginning with Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392), all eds have emended the mss’ ‘hrin-’ (R, , W) to hring-, which results in a better aðalhending (hring : ging). There have been several proposed interpretations of the cpd hringbalka: (a) This edn takes hringbalka as acc. pl. of hringbalkr ‘circular room’. For balkr as an a-stem, see Fritzner: balkr. The emendation to hringbalka is justifiable because this is the only word that can designate a place with the prep. í ‘in, into’ (l. 1). Hringbalka is not following the prep. directly, but the gap is partially filled by the genitives qualifying hringbalka. If one accepts that genitives can also precede the word they qualify, an almost natural syntax arises: í þróttarhersa Þornranns hringbalka which is only interrupted by the subject of the sentence hugumbornir ‘the courageous ones’. Hringbalka ‘circular room’ could be combined with the giant-kenning þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’ to form a kenning for ‘cave’, but that kenning would contain the referent ‘cave’ twice, once in Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn [CAVE]’ and again as the referent of the whole kenning itself. Snorri apparently interpreted hringbalkr as a stall for goats (geitahús; Skm, SnE 1998, I, 25). Other eds have retained the nom. hringbalkar. (b) Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 393) interprets the cpd as ‘round enclosure, fence’ and combines it with hellis ‘of the cave’ in a kenning for ‘mountains’ (the rocks enclosing the cave), which again functions as the determinant in the giant-kenning ‘Cumbrians of the round enclosure of the cave’ (so also Kock, NN §§460, 2514). Reichardt (1948, 372) does not explain the expression but translates it simply as ‘Cumbrians of the cave’. (c) Lindquist (1929, 99, followed by Mohr 1933, 5) interprets hringbalkar as a man-kenning, ringförsedda balkar ‘ringed beams’, and takes it as the subject of the clause. Reichardt’s (1948, 371) objections to this interpretation are justified. ONP: bǫlkr records 33 tokens of the word but only two have the (uncertain) meaning ‘beam’.

Close

þróttar ‘of the strength’

(not checked:)
þróttr (noun m.): strength, might, valour < þróttarhersir (noun m.)

kennings

þróttarhersa Þornranns;
‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn; ’
   = GIANTS

the house of Þorn; → CAVE
the strength-hersar of the CAVE → GIANTS

notes

[1-2] þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’: The base-word of the giant-kenning is hersa ‘of the hersar’, qualified by þróttar ‘of the strength’. Words for leaders or rulers such as gramr, jarl, jǫfurr are well attested as base-words in kennings for ‘giant’ (Meissner 255-8). The determinant of þróttarhersa is Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn <giant>’. Þórnrann could in fact be interpreted lit. as ‘Þorn’s house’; yet, in its function as the determinant in a giant-kenning, it is preferable to take Þornranns as a kenning for ‘cave’, i.e. the dwelling place of a giant. Kock’s (NN §460) interpretation … gingu fram í þróttar hersa þornranns ‘they moved forward against the strong hersar of the giant-dwelling’ assumes an unattested collocation ganga framm í ‘move against sby’ (Reichardt 1948, 372). Reichardt (ibid.) therefore suggests a conjectural við ‘against’ in place of í ‘in, into’. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392; Skj B) emends Þornranns gen. to Þornrann acc. and combines it with í ‘in’ (l. 1), but this leaves a dangling prep.

Close

hersahersar

(not checked:)
hersir (noun m.; °-is; -ar): cheiftan < þróttarhersir (noun m.)

[1] ‑hersa: bersa W

kennings

þróttarhersa Þornranns;
‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn; ’
   = GIANTS

the house of Þorn; → CAVE
the strength-hersar of the CAVE → GIANTS

notes

[1-2] þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’: The base-word of the giant-kenning is hersa ‘of the hersar’, qualified by þróttar ‘of the strength’. Words for leaders or rulers such as gramr, jarl, jǫfurr are well attested as base-words in kennings for ‘giant’ (Meissner 255-8). The determinant of þróttarhersa is Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn <giant>’. Þórnrann could in fact be interpreted lit. as ‘Þorn’s house’; yet, in its function as the determinant in a giant-kenning, it is preferable to take Þornranns as a kenning for ‘cave’, i.e. the dwelling place of a giant. Kock’s (NN §460) interpretation … gingu fram í þróttar hersa þornranns ‘they moved forward against the strong hersar of the giant-dwelling’ assumes an unattested collocation ganga framm í ‘move against sby’ (Reichardt 1948, 372). Reichardt (ibid.) therefore suggests a conjectural við ‘against’ in place of í ‘in, into’. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392; Skj B) emends Þornranns gen. to Þornrann acc. and combines it with í ‘in’ (l. 1), but this leaves a dangling prep.

Close

Þorn ‘of Þorn’

(not checked:)
2. Þorn (noun m.): Þorn < þornrann (noun n.)

kennings

þróttarhersa Þornranns;
‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn; ’
   = GIANTS

the house of Þorn; → CAVE
the strength-hersar of the CAVE → GIANTS

notes

[1-2] þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’: The base-word of the giant-kenning is hersa ‘of the hersar’, qualified by þróttar ‘of the strength’. Words for leaders or rulers such as gramr, jarl, jǫfurr are well attested as base-words in kennings for ‘giant’ (Meissner 255-8). The determinant of þróttarhersa is Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn <giant>’. Þórnrann could in fact be interpreted lit. as ‘Þorn’s house’; yet, in its function as the determinant in a giant-kenning, it is preferable to take Þornranns as a kenning for ‘cave’, i.e. the dwelling place of a giant. Kock’s (NN §460) interpretation … gingu fram í þróttar hersa þornranns ‘they moved forward against the strong hersar of the giant-dwelling’ assumes an unattested collocation ganga framm í ‘move against sby’ (Reichardt 1948, 372). Reichardt (ibid.) therefore suggests a conjectural við ‘against’ in place of í ‘in, into’. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392; Skj B) emends Þornranns gen. to Þornrann acc. and combines it with í ‘in’ (l. 1), but this leaves a dangling prep.

Close

Þorn ‘of Þorn’

(not checked:)
2. Þorn (noun m.): Þorn < þornrann (noun n.)

kennings

þróttarhersa Þornranns;
‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn; ’
   = GIANTS

the house of Þorn; → CAVE
the strength-hersar of the CAVE → GIANTS

notes

[1-2] þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’: The base-word of the giant-kenning is hersa ‘of the hersar’, qualified by þróttar ‘of the strength’. Words for leaders or rulers such as gramr, jarl, jǫfurr are well attested as base-words in kennings for ‘giant’ (Meissner 255-8). The determinant of þróttarhersa is Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn <giant>’. Þórnrann could in fact be interpreted lit. as ‘Þorn’s house’; yet, in its function as the determinant in a giant-kenning, it is preferable to take Þornranns as a kenning for ‘cave’, i.e. the dwelling place of a giant. Kock’s (NN §460) interpretation … gingu fram í þróttar hersa þornranns ‘they moved forward against the strong hersar of the giant-dwelling’ assumes an unattested collocation ganga framm í ‘move against sby’ (Reichardt 1948, 372). Reichardt (ibid.) therefore suggests a conjectural við ‘against’ in place of í ‘in, into’. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392; Skj B) emends Þornranns gen. to Þornrann acc. and combines it with í ‘in’ (l. 1), but this leaves a dangling prep.

Close

ranns ‘of the house’

(not checked:)
rann (noun n.): house, hall < þornrann (noun n.)

kennings

þróttarhersa Þornranns;
‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn; ’
   = GIANTS

the house of Þorn; → CAVE
the strength-hersar of the CAVE → GIANTS

notes

[1-2] þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’: The base-word of the giant-kenning is hersa ‘of the hersar’, qualified by þróttar ‘of the strength’. Words for leaders or rulers such as gramr, jarl, jǫfurr are well attested as base-words in kennings for ‘giant’ (Meissner 255-8). The determinant of þróttarhersa is Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn <giant>’. Þórnrann could in fact be interpreted lit. as ‘Þorn’s house’; yet, in its function as the determinant in a giant-kenning, it is preferable to take Þornranns as a kenning for ‘cave’, i.e. the dwelling place of a giant. Kock’s (NN §460) interpretation … gingu fram í þróttar hersa þornranns ‘they moved forward against the strong hersar of the giant-dwelling’ assumes an unattested collocation ganga framm í ‘move against sby’ (Reichardt 1948, 372). Reichardt (ibid.) therefore suggests a conjectural við ‘against’ in place of í ‘in, into’. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392; Skj B) emends Þornranns gen. to Þornrann acc. and combines it with í ‘in’ (l. 1), but this leaves a dangling prep.

Close

ranns ‘of the house’

(not checked:)
rann (noun n.): house, hall < þornrann (noun n.)

kennings

þróttarhersa Þornranns;
‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn; ’
   = GIANTS

the house of Þorn; → CAVE
the strength-hersar of the CAVE → GIANTS

notes

[1-2] þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’: The base-word of the giant-kenning is hersa ‘of the hersar’, qualified by þróttar ‘of the strength’. Words for leaders or rulers such as gramr, jarl, jǫfurr are well attested as base-words in kennings for ‘giant’ (Meissner 255-8). The determinant of þróttarhersa is Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn <giant>’. Þórnrann could in fact be interpreted lit. as ‘Þorn’s house’; yet, in its function as the determinant in a giant-kenning, it is preferable to take Þornranns as a kenning for ‘cave’, i.e. the dwelling place of a giant. Kock’s (NN §460) interpretation … gingu fram í þróttar hersa þornranns ‘they moved forward against the strong hersar of the giant-dwelling’ assumes an unattested collocation ganga framm í ‘move against sby’ (Reichardt 1948, 372). Reichardt (ibid.) therefore suggests a conjectural við ‘against’ in place of í ‘in, into’. Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392; Skj B) emends Þornranns gen. to Þornrann acc. and combines it with í ‘in’ (l. 1), but this leaves a dangling prep.

Close

hugum ‘the courageous ones’

(not checked:)
hugr (noun m.): mind, thought, courage

Close

hlymr ‘the din’

(not checked:)
hlymr (noun m.): din

Close

varð ‘arose’

(not checked:)
1. verða (verb): become, be

Close

hellis ‘of the cave’

(not checked:)
hellir (noun m.; °-s/hells, dat. -i; -ar, acc. -a/-ra): cave

[3] hellis: so W, hellir R, Tˣ

kennings

Kumra hellis
‘of the Cumbrians of the cave ’
   = GIANTS

the Cumbrians of the cave → GIANTS

notes

[3] Kumra hellis ‘of the Cumbrians of the cave [GIANTS]’: This type of giant-kenning, in which the base-word is an ethnic name, occurs frequently in Þdr (cf. Introduction above and Marold 1990a, 109-10). The use of the ethnic names Skotar ‘Scots’ (st. 2/6), Bretar ‘Britons’ (st. 12/7) and Kymrar ‘Cumbrians’ (st. 14/3) could be explained by the fact that they were traditionally the enemies of Norwegian vikings (Frank 1986, 102-3; Marold 1990a, 121).

Close

Kumra ‘of the Cumbrians’

(not checked:)
2. kumri (noun m.): [Cumbrians]

kennings

Kumra hellis
‘of the Cumbrians of the cave ’
   = GIANTS

the Cumbrians of the cave → GIANTS

notes

[3] Kumra hellis ‘of the Cumbrians of the cave [GIANTS]’: This type of giant-kenning, in which the base-word is an ethnic name, occurs frequently in Þdr (cf. Introduction above and Marold 1990a, 109-10). The use of the ethnic names Skotar ‘Scots’ (st. 2/6), Bretar ‘Britons’ (st. 12/7) and Kymrar ‘Cumbrians’ (st. 14/3) could be explained by the fact that they were traditionally the enemies of Norwegian vikings (Frank 1986, 102-3; Marold 1990a, 121).

Close

hring ‘the circular’

(not checked:)
1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringbǫlkr (noun m.)

[4] hring‑: ‘hrin‑’ R, W, hrim Tˣ

notes

[1, 4] í hringbalka* ‘into the circular rooms’: Beginning with Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392), all eds have emended the mss’ ‘hrin-’ (R, , W) to hring-, which results in a better aðalhending (hring : ging). There have been several proposed interpretations of the cpd hringbalka: (a) This edn takes hringbalka as acc. pl. of hringbalkr ‘circular room’. For balkr as an a-stem, see Fritzner: balkr. The emendation to hringbalka is justifiable because this is the only word that can designate a place with the prep. í ‘in, into’ (l. 1). Hringbalka is not following the prep. directly, but the gap is partially filled by the genitives qualifying hringbalka. If one accepts that genitives can also precede the word they qualify, an almost natural syntax arises: í þróttarhersa Þornranns hringbalka which is only interrupted by the subject of the sentence hugumbornir ‘the courageous ones’. Hringbalka ‘circular room’ could be combined with the giant-kenning þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’ to form a kenning for ‘cave’, but that kenning would contain the referent ‘cave’ twice, once in Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn [CAVE]’ and again as the referent of the whole kenning itself. Snorri apparently interpreted hringbalkr as a stall for goats (geitahús; Skm, SnE 1998, I, 25). Other eds have retained the nom. hringbalkar. (b) Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 393) interprets the cpd as ‘round enclosure, fence’ and combines it with hellis ‘of the cave’ in a kenning for ‘mountains’ (the rocks enclosing the cave), which again functions as the determinant in the giant-kenning ‘Cumbrians of the round enclosure of the cave’ (so also Kock, NN §§460, 2514). Reichardt (1948, 372) does not explain the expression but translates it simply as ‘Cumbrians of the cave’. (c) Lindquist (1929, 99, followed by Mohr 1933, 5) interprets hringbalkar as a man-kenning, ringförsedda balkar ‘ringed beams’, and takes it as the subject of the clause. Reichardt’s (1948, 371) objections to this interpretation are justified. ONP: bǫlkr records 33 tokens of the word but only two have the (uncertain) meaning ‘beam’.

Close

balka* ‘rooms’

(not checked:)
bǫlkr (noun m.; °dat. belki; acc. bǫlku/bǫlka): section, room, wall < hringbǫlkr (noun m.)

[4] ‑balka*: balkar R, W, ‘[…]lcar’ Tˣ

notes

[1, 4] í hringbalka* ‘into the circular rooms’: Beginning with Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 392), all eds have emended the mss’ ‘hrin-’ (R, , W) to hring-, which results in a better aðalhending (hring : ging). There have been several proposed interpretations of the cpd hringbalka: (a) This edn takes hringbalka as acc. pl. of hringbalkr ‘circular room’. For balkr as an a-stem, see Fritzner: balkr. The emendation to hringbalka is justifiable because this is the only word that can designate a place with the prep. í ‘in, into’ (l. 1). Hringbalka is not following the prep. directly, but the gap is partially filled by the genitives qualifying hringbalka. If one accepts that genitives can also precede the word they qualify, an almost natural syntax arises: í þróttarhersa Þornranns hringbalka which is only interrupted by the subject of the sentence hugumbornir ‘the courageous ones’. Hringbalka ‘circular room’ could be combined with the giant-kenning þróttarhersa Þornranns ‘of the strength-hersar of the house of Þorn <giant> [CAVE > GIANTS]’ to form a kenning for ‘cave’, but that kenning would contain the referent ‘cave’ twice, once in Þornranns ‘of the house of Þorn [CAVE]’ and again as the referent of the whole kenning itself. Snorri apparently interpreted hringbalkr as a stall for goats (geitahús; Skm, SnE 1998, I, 25). Other eds have retained the nom. hringbalkar. (b) Finnur Jónsson (1900b, 393) interprets the cpd as ‘round enclosure, fence’ and combines it with hellis ‘of the cave’ in a kenning for ‘mountains’ (the rocks enclosing the cave), which again functions as the determinant in the giant-kenning ‘Cumbrians of the round enclosure of the cave’ (so also Kock, NN §§460, 2514). Reichardt (1948, 372) does not explain the expression but translates it simply as ‘Cumbrians of the cave’. (c) Lindquist (1929, 99, followed by Mohr 1933, 5) interprets hringbalkar as a man-kenning, ringförsedda balkar ‘ringed beams’, and takes it as the subject of the clause. Reichardt’s (1948, 371) objections to this interpretation are justified. ONP: bǫlkr records 33 tokens of the word but only two have the (uncertain) meaning ‘beam’.

Close

framm ‘forwards’

(not checked:)
fram (adv.): out, forth, forwards, away

Close

List* ‘cunningly’

(not checked:)
list (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): skill, art, virtue

[5] List* vas fœrðr: listi ferðr R, listi feðr Tˣ, W

notes

[5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

vas ‘was’

(not checked:)
2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] List* vas fœrðr: listi ferðr R, listi feðr Tˣ, W

notes

[5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

fœrðr ‘brought’

(not checked:)
2. fœra (verb): bring

[5] List* vas fœrðr: listi ferðr R, listi feðr Tˣ, W

notes

[5] fœrðr í fasta ‘brought into a tight spot’: Fasti is only rarely attested in the meaning ‘tight spot’ (see LP: 2. fasti); it may be a nominal derivation (m. n-stem) from the adj. fastr ‘solid, tight’. The sense of the noun can only be deduced from the context of the prose narrative in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which tells how Þórr is pressed against the roof by the two daughters of Geirrøðr crouching under his chair. — [5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

fœrðr ‘brought’

(not checked:)
2. fœra (verb): bring

[5] List* vas fœrðr: listi ferðr R, listi feðr Tˣ, W

notes

[5] fœrðr í fasta ‘brought into a tight spot’: Fasti is only rarely attested in the meaning ‘tight spot’ (see LP: 2. fasti); it may be a nominal derivation (m. n-stem) from the adj. fastr ‘solid, tight’. The sense of the noun can only be deduced from the context of the prose narrative in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which tells how Þórr is pressed against the roof by the two daughters of Geirrøðr crouching under his chair. — [5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

í ‘into’

(not checked:)
í (prep.): in, into

notes

[5] fœrðr í fasta ‘brought into a tight spot’: Fasti is only rarely attested in the meaning ‘tight spot’ (see LP: 2. fasti); it may be a nominal derivation (m. n-stem) from the adj. fastr ‘solid, tight’. The sense of the noun can only be deduced from the context of the prose narrative in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which tells how Þórr is pressed against the roof by the two daughters of Geirrøðr crouching under his chair. — [5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

í ‘into’

(not checked:)
í (prep.): in, into

notes

[5] fœrðr í fasta ‘brought into a tight spot’: Fasti is only rarely attested in the meaning ‘tight spot’ (see LP: 2. fasti); it may be a nominal derivation (m. n-stem) from the adj. fastr ‘solid, tight’. The sense of the noun can only be deduced from the context of the prose narrative in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which tells how Þórr is pressed against the roof by the two daughters of Geirrøðr crouching under his chair. — [5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

fasta ‘a tight spot’

(not checked:)
fastr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): firm, fast

notes

[5] fœrðr í fasta ‘brought into a tight spot’: Fasti is only rarely attested in the meaning ‘tight spot’ (see LP: 2. fasti); it may be a nominal derivation (m. n-stem) from the adj. fastr ‘solid, tight’. The sense of the noun can only be deduced from the context of the prose narrative in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which tells how Þórr is pressed against the roof by the two daughters of Geirrøðr crouching under his chair. — [5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

fasta ‘a tight spot’

(not checked:)
fastr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): firm, fast

notes

[5] fœrðr í fasta ‘brought into a tight spot’: Fasti is only rarely attested in the meaning ‘tight spot’ (see LP: 2. fasti); it may be a nominal derivation (m. n-stem) from the adj. fastr ‘solid, tight’. The sense of the noun can only be deduced from the context of the prose narrative in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25), which tells how Þórr is pressed against the roof by the two daughters of Geirrøðr crouching under his chair. — [5] vas list* fœrðr í fasta ‘was cunningly brought into a tight spot’: The main clause lacks a finite verb, and earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) supply vas ‘was’, which has been adopted in the present edn. However, that emendation makes the line too long (seven syllables); hence ‘listi’ (so all mss) has been emended to list* here, dat. of list f. ‘cunning, skill’. Listi (all mss) can only be the nom. Listi, the name of a peninsula in Vest-Agder, the southernmost part of Norway, which cannot be acommodated syntactically in this clause. Other eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461) emend Listi to Lista gen. sg. and include the p. n. as a redundant element in the giant-kenning hreina gnípu ‘of the reindeer of the peak’, but that still leaves a hypermetrical line. The same objection can be made to Reichardt (1948, 374), who takes listi as the dat. (perhaps even with an emendation to listum dat. pl.).

Close

frið ‘of peace’

(not checked:)
friðr (noun m.): peace < friðsein (noun n.)

notes

[6] friðsein ‘a prevention of peace’: Lit. ‘peace-delay’ (litotes). This is an otherwise unattested cpd from friðr m. ‘peace’ and sein n. ‘delay’, a derivation of the adj. seinn ‘slow, reluctant’; cf. vera seinn, hafa seint ‘be hesitant’, i.e. avoid doing something or never do it (Fritzner: seinn).

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sein ‘a prevention’

(not checked:)
2. sein (noun n.): hindrance < friðsein (noun n.)

notes

[6] friðsein ‘a prevention of peace’: Lit. ‘peace-delay’ (litotes). This is an otherwise unattested cpd from friðr m. ‘peace’ and sein n. ‘delay’, a derivation of the adj. seinn ‘slow, reluctant’; cf. vera seinn, hafa seint ‘be hesitant’, i.e. avoid doing something or never do it (Fritzner: seinn).

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þar ‘there’

(not checked:)
þar (adv.): there

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hreina ‘of the reindeer’

(not checked:)
1. hreinn (noun m.; °; hreinar): reindeer

[6] hreina: hreini all

kennings

Hlǫðr hreina gnípu
‘The vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak ’
   = Þórr

the reindeer of the peak → GIANTS
The vanquisher of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[6] hreina ‘of the reindeer’: All eds except Kiil (1956, 142) emend the mss’ hreini to hreina and combine it with gnípu ‘of the peak’ (l. 7) to form a giant-kenning. — [6-7] hlǫðr hreina gnípu ‘the vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak [GIANTS > = Þórr]’: This kenning follows the common pattern of Þórr-kennings that refer to him as a fighter of giants.

Close

hreina ‘of the reindeer’

(not checked:)
1. hreinn (noun m.; °; hreinar): reindeer

[6] hreina: hreini all

kennings

Hlǫðr hreina gnípu
‘The vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak ’
   = Þórr

the reindeer of the peak → GIANTS
The vanquisher of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[6] hreina ‘of the reindeer’: All eds except Kiil (1956, 142) emend the mss’ hreini to hreina and combine it with gnípu ‘of the peak’ (l. 7) to form a giant-kenning. — [6-7] hlǫðr hreina gnípu ‘the vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak [GIANTS > = Þórr]’: This kenning follows the common pattern of Þórr-kennings that refer to him as a fighter of giants.

Close

hreina ‘of the reindeer’

(not checked:)
1. hreinn (noun m.; °; hreinar): reindeer

[6] hreina: hreini all

kennings

Hlǫðr hreina gnípu
‘The vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak ’
   = Þórr

the reindeer of the peak → GIANTS
The vanquisher of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[6] hreina ‘of the reindeer’: All eds except Kiil (1956, 142) emend the mss’ hreini to hreina and combine it with gnípu ‘of the peak’ (l. 7) to form a giant-kenning. — [6-7] hlǫðr hreina gnípu ‘the vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak [GIANTS > = Þórr]’: This kenning follows the common pattern of Þórr-kennings that refer to him as a fighter of giants.

Close

hreina ‘of the reindeer’

(not checked:)
1. hreinn (noun m.; °; hreinar): reindeer

[6] hreina: hreini all

kennings

Hlǫðr hreina gnípu
‘The vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak ’
   = Þórr

the reindeer of the peak → GIANTS
The vanquisher of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[6] hreina ‘of the reindeer’: All eds except Kiil (1956, 142) emend the mss’ hreini to hreina and combine it with gnípu ‘of the peak’ (l. 7) to form a giant-kenning. — [6-7] hlǫðr hreina gnípu ‘the vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak [GIANTS > = Þórr]’: This kenning follows the common pattern of Þórr-kennings that refer to him as a fighter of giants.

Close

gnípu ‘of the peak’

(not checked:)
1. gnípa (noun f.): peak

kennings

Hlǫðr hreina gnípu
‘The vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak ’
   = Þórr

the reindeer of the peak → GIANTS
The vanquisher of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[6-7] hlǫðr hreina gnípu ‘the vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak [GIANTS > = Þórr]’: This kenning follows the common pattern of Þórr-kennings that refer to him as a fighter of giants.

Close

gnípu ‘of the peak’

(not checked:)
1. gnípa (noun f.): peak

kennings

Hlǫðr hreina gnípu
‘The vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak ’
   = Þórr

the reindeer of the peak → GIANTS
The vanquisher of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[6-7] hlǫðr hreina gnípu ‘the vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak [GIANTS > = Þórr]’: This kenning follows the common pattern of Þórr-kennings that refer to him as a fighter of giants.

Close

hlǫðr ‘The vanquisher’

(not checked:)
hlǫðr (noun m.): feller, vanquisher

[7] hlǫðr: ‘hlædr’ W

kennings

Hlǫðr hreina gnípu
‘The vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak ’
   = Þórr

the reindeer of the peak → GIANTS
The vanquisher of GIANTS → Þórr

notes

[6-7] hlǫðr hreina gnípu ‘the vanquisher of the reindeer of the peak [GIANTS > = Þórr]’: This kenning follows the common pattern of Þórr-kennings that refer to him as a fighter of giants.

Close

á ‘upon’

(not checked:)
3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene.

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greypan ‘the horrible’

(not checked:)
greypr (adj.; °compar. -ari): cruel

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene.

Close

grán ‘grey’

(not checked:)
gránn (adj.): grey

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene.

Close

hǫtt ‘hat’

(not checked:)
1. hǫttr (noun m.): hood, hat

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene.

Close

risa ‘of the giant’

(not checked:)
risi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): [giant]

[8] risa: ‘res’ all

kennings

kvánar risa;
‘of the wife of the giant; ’
   = GIANTESS

the wife of the giant; → GIANTESS

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene. — [8] kvánar risa ‘of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: This line has only five syllables in the mss, and kvánar ‘of the wife’ lacks a determinant. Following earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 374), ‘res’ (so all mss) has been emended to risa ‘of the giant’.

Close

risa ‘of the giant’

(not checked:)
risi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): [giant]

[8] risa: ‘res’ all

kennings

kvánar risa;
‘of the wife of the giant; ’
   = GIANTESS

the wife of the giant; → GIANTESS

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene. — [8] kvánar risa ‘of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: This line has only five syllables in the mss, and kvánar ‘of the wife’ lacks a determinant. Following earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 374), ‘res’ (so all mss) has been emended to risa ‘of the giant’.

Close

kvánar ‘of the wife’

(not checked:)
kván (noun f.; °-ar): wife

kennings

kvánar risa;
‘of the wife of the giant; ’
   = GIANTESS

the wife of the giant; → GIANTESS

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene. — [8] kvánar risa ‘of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: This line has only five syllables in the mss, and kvánar ‘of the wife’ lacks a determinant. Following earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 374), ‘res’ (so all mss) has been emended to risa ‘of the giant’.

Close

kvánar ‘of the wife’

(not checked:)
kván (noun f.; °-ar): wife

kennings

kvánar risa;
‘of the wife of the giant; ’
   = GIANTESS

the wife of the giant; → GIANTESS

notes

[7-8] á greypan gránhǫtt kvánar risa ‘upon the horrible grey hat of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: The context provided by Skm (SnE 1998, I, 25) seems to indicate that ‘hat of the giantess’ is the chair Þórr is sitting on (NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 373). The meaning of gránhǫtt ‘grey hat’ is not clear, and it might be a unique metaphor for this particular chair, which also protects the heads of the giantesses cowering beneath it (Reichardt 1948, 373). More likely, however, is Clunies Ross’s (1981, 380, followed by Davidson 1983, 627) suggestion that gránhǫtt denotes ‘a slab of grey stone’, which would indicate that Þórr’s struggle with the giantesses took place in a cave; cf. tveggja sprundi hellis ‘two women of the cave’ (st. 15/6, 7, 8). It is possible that the chair occupied by Þórr in Snorri’s narrative is the product of a late medieval elaboration of the scene. — [8] kvánar risa ‘of the wife of the giant [GIANTESS]’: This line has only five syllables in the mss, and kvánar ‘of the wife’ lacks a determinant. Following earlier eds (Finnur Jónsson 1900b, 393; Skj B; NN §461; Reichardt 1948, 374), ‘res’ (so all mss) has been emended to risa ‘of the giant’.

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