skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

ESk Geisl 55VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 55’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 51-2.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
545556

Vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] Vas sem: so Bb, Þá es Flat

Close

sem ‘as if’

sem (conj.): as, which

[1] Vas sem: so Bb, Þá es Flat

Close

reyk ‘smoke’

reykr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -i/-; -ir): smoke

[1] reyk: so Bb, rauk Flat

Close

regn ‘the rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain

kennings

regn stáls
‘the rain of steel ’
   = BATTLE

the rain of steel → BATTLE
Close

stáls ‘of steel’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

[2] stáls: so Bb, stál Flat

kennings

regn stáls
‘the rain of steel ’
   = BATTLE

the rain of steel → BATTLE
Close

í ‘’

í (prep.): in, into

[2] í: so Bb, á Flat

Close

gegnum ‘through’

gegnum (prep.): through

[2] gegnum: so Bb, þegna Flat

Close

hjalm ‘to the helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmnjǫrðungr (noun m.)

kennings

hjalm-Njǫrðungum,
‘to the helmet-Nirðir ’
   = WARRIORS

to the helmet-Nirðir → WARRIORS

notes

[3] hjalm-Njǫrðungum (dat. pl.) ‘helmet-Nirðir’: Pl. Njǫrðungar, derived from the name of the god Njǫrðr, is used in skaldic poetry (only as the second element of cpd nouns) as a base-word in kennings for men. According to Snorri Sturluson, Njǫrðr controls wind and fire (SnE 1982, 23), and Einarr may have used his name in this hap. leg. kenning to emphasize the imagery of smoke and storm.

Close

Njǫrðungum ‘Nirðir’

njǫrðungr (noun m.; °; -ar): one of the Nirðir, Njǫrðungar < hjalmnjǫrðungr (noun m.)

[3] ‑Njǫrðungum: ‘niord vnar’ Bb

kennings

hjalm-Njǫrðungum,
‘to the helmet-Nirðir ’
   = WARRIORS

to the helmet-Nirðir → WARRIORS

notes

[3] hjalm-Njǫrðungum (dat. pl.) ‘helmet-Nirðir’: Pl. Njǫrðungar, derived from the name of the god Njǫrðr, is used in skaldic poetry (only as the second element of cpd nouns) as a base-word in kennings for men. According to Snorri Sturluson, Njǫrðr controls wind and fire (SnE 1982, 23), and Einarr may have used his name in this hap. leg. kenning to emphasize the imagery of smoke and storm.

Close

harðan ‘hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[3] harðan: so Bb, harða Flat

Close

Halft ‘a half’

halfr (adj.): half

notes

[5, 6] halft fimta hundrað ‘four and a half hundreds’: Lit. ‘half of the fifth hundred’; i.e. four ‘hundreds’ and half of another. In the Norse system of reckoning, a hundrað was 120, so the reference is to 540 men.

Close

fimta ‘Four and’

fimmti (num. ordinal): fifth

notes

[5, 6] halft fimta hundrað ‘four and a half hundreds’: Lit. ‘half of the fifth hundred’; i.e. four ‘hundreds’ and half of another. In the Norse system of reckoning, a hundrað was 120, so the reference is to 540 men.

Close

heimtan ‘claim’

4. heima (verb): claim

Close

hundrað ‘hundreds’

hundrað (noun n.; °-s; hundruð/-): hundred

notes

[5, 6] halft fimta hundrað ‘four and a half hundreds’: Lit. ‘half of the fifth hundred’; i.e. four ‘hundreds’ and half of another. In the Norse system of reckoning, a hundrað was 120, so the reference is to 540 men.

Close

brimi*s ‘of the sword’

brimir (noun m.): sword

[6] brimi*s: brimils Flat, brimirs Bb

kennings

val sunda brimi*s.
‘the falcon of the bays of the sword.’
   = RAVEN

the bays of the sword. → BLOOD
the falcon of the BLOOD → RAVEN
Close

brimi*s ‘of the sword’

brimir (noun m.): sword

[6] brimi*s: brimils Flat, brimirs Bb

kennings

val sunda brimi*s.
‘the falcon of the bays of the sword.’
   = RAVEN

the bays of the sword. → BLOOD
the falcon of the BLOOD → RAVEN
Close

sunda ‘of the bays’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

kennings

val sunda brimi*s.
‘the falcon of the bays of the sword.’
   = RAVEN

the bays of the sword. → BLOOD
the falcon of the BLOOD → RAVEN
Close

sunda ‘of the bays’

sund (noun n.; °-s; -): sound, strait; swimming

kennings

val sunda brimi*s.
‘the falcon of the bays of the sword.’
   = RAVEN

the bays of the sword. → BLOOD
the falcon of the BLOOD → RAVEN
Close

þars ‘where’

þar (adv.): there

[7] þars (‘þar er’): ‘þat er’ Bb

notes

[7] þars ‘where’: Skj B and Skald follow Bb here, with þats (n. sg.) referring back to halft (l. 5), hence ‘the one that dared to feed...’.

Close

nærri ‘’

næra (verb)

Close

nœra ‘to feed’

nœra (verb): nourish

[7] nœra: so Bb, nærri Flat

Close

Norðmanna ‘of Norwegians’

norðmaðr (noun m.): Norwegian

Close

val ‘the falcon’

2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon

kennings

val sunda brimi*s.
‘the falcon of the bays of the sword.’
   = RAVEN

the bays of the sword. → BLOOD
the falcon of the BLOOD → RAVEN
Close

þorðu ‘they dared’

þora (verb): dare

[8] þorðu: þorði Bb

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: The syntax is awkward, whichever ms. is adopted as base. Here Flat’s l. 1 has been deemed syntactically impossible, and Bb has been followed for ll. 1-4.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.