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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Bjbp Jóms 11I

Emily Lethbridge (ed.) 2012, ‘Bjarni byskup Kolbeinsson, Jómsvíkingadrápa 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 968.

Bjarni byskup KolbeinssonJómsvíkingadrápa
101112

einkum ‘especially’

einkum (adv.): [especially]

[1] einkum: ǫngu 54, øngva Bb

notes

[1] einkum ‘especially’: This is taken in Skj B with the intercalary clause in l. 3. It is difficult or impossible to make grammatical sense of the variants in 54 and Bb, forms of the negative adj. or pron. øngr ‘no, no-one, nothing’ (CVC: eingi A).

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ǫldur ‘the’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age < ǫldurmaðr (noun m.): [leaders]

notes

[2] ǫldurmenn ‘the leaders’: The three instances of this word in skaldic poetry are all C12th or later. The word is an adoption either from OE (so LP: ǫldurmaðr) or from MLG (so AEW: ǫldurmaðr).

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menn ‘leaders’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < ǫldurmaðr (noun m.): [leaders]

notes

[2] ǫldurmenn ‘the leaders’: The three instances of this word in skaldic poetry are all C12th or later. The word is an adoption either from OE (so LP: ǫldurmaðr) or from MLG (so AEW: ǫldurmaðr).

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

notes

[2] at skyldu ‘that they should’: This could conceivably be taken as a prepositional phrase meaning ‘according to [their] duty’ (so Fms 12, 40, 242-3). The variant skuldum in 54 and Bb is probably dat. pl. of the noun skuld f. ‘duty, due’ rather than the 1st pers. pl. pret. form of the verb skulu ‘shall’.

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skyldu ‘they should’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[2] skyldu: skuldum 54, Bb

notes

[2] at skyldu ‘that they should’: This could conceivably be taken as a prepositional phrase meaning ‘according to [their] duty’ (so Fms 12, 40, 242-3). The variant skuldum in 54 and Bb is probably dat. pl. of the noun skuld f. ‘duty, due’ rather than the 1st pers. pl. pret. form of the verb skulu ‘shall’.

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slíkt ‘such matters’

2. slíkr (adj.): such

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yrkisefni ‘material for a poem’

yrkisefni (noun n.): material for a poem

notes

[3] yrkisefni ‘material for a poem’: Only otherwise found in Arn Hryn 14/1II.

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ágæta ‘fame’

ágæti (noun n.; °-s; -): fame, excellence

[4] ágæta: ágætis all others

notes

[4] ágæta ‘fame’: This is the gen. pl. form of the n. noun ágæti and the object of leita ‘seek’; the variant ágætis in the ÓT mss is the gen. sg. form.

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hauk ‘hawk’

1. haukr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): hawk < haukligr (adj.): [hawk-like]

notes

[5, 6] haukligar heitstrengingar ‘hawk-like vows’: On ‘hawk’ imagery see Note to st. 8/8. The 61 variant is the sup. ‘most hawk-like’, while haukliga in 54, Bb could be adverbial, ‘in a hawk-like way’.

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ligar ‘like’

-ligr (adj.): -ly < haukligr (adj.): [hawk-like]

[5] ‑ligar: ‑ligast 61, ‑liga 54, Bb

notes

[5, 6] haukligar heitstrengingar ‘hawk-like vows’: On ‘hawk’ imagery see Note to st. 8/8. The 61 variant is the sup. ‘most hawk-like’, while haukliga in 54, Bb could be adverbial, ‘in a hawk-like way’.

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hefja ‘they made’

hefja (verb): lift, start

notes

[5, 6] gátu hefja ‘made’: The ÓT reading gátu, lit. ‘got, succeeded in’ is metrically more correct than R’s tóku, lit. ‘proceeded to’, as it provides the skothending needed for l. 6. Both verbs can function as auxiliaries to an inf., here hefja ‘begin, make’.

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heit ‘vows’

heit (noun n.; °; -): promise < heitstrenging (noun f.): [vows]

notes

[5, 6] haukligar heitstrengingar ‘hawk-like vows’: On ‘hawk’ imagery see Note to st. 8/8. The 61 variant is the sup. ‘most hawk-like’, while haukliga in 54, Bb could be adverbial, ‘in a hawk-like way’.

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strengingar ‘’

strenging (noun f.; °; dat. -um): [vows] < heitstrenging (noun f.): [vows]

notes

[5, 6] haukligar heitstrengingar ‘hawk-like vows’: On ‘hawk’ imagery see Note to st. 8/8. The 61 variant is the sup. ‘most hawk-like’, while haukliga in 54, Bb could be adverbial, ‘in a hawk-like way’.

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gátu ‘’

2. geta (verb): to beget, give birth to, mention, speak of; to think well of, like, love

[6] gátu: so all others, tóku R

notes

[5, 6] gátu hefja ‘made’: The ÓT reading gátu, lit. ‘got, succeeded in’ is metrically more correct than R’s tóku, lit. ‘proceeded to’, as it provides the skothending needed for l. 6. Both verbs can function as auxiliaries to an inf., here hefja ‘begin, make’.

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eigi ‘I do not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

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segik ‘say’

segja (verb): say, tell

[7] segik: frá ek all others

notes

[7] segik ‘I say’: The variant frák ‘I have heard’ in the ÓT mss also gives good sense, and better metre, since segik presupposes non-standard resolution on the second lift.

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[7] at: œðri 61

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The Jómsvíkingar are plied with a great quantity of strong drink at King Sveinn’s feast. Sveinn swears a vow to take his army to England to kill King Aðalráðr (Æthelred) or else drive him from the land; he then calls on the renowned Jómsvíkingar to find a way to increase their fame. The Jómsvíkingar say they will not let the entertainment that the king has initiated lapse.

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