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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Ól 1I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Poem about Óláfr Tryggvason 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1063.

Anonymous PoemsPoem about Óláfr Tryggvason
12

Giekk ‘went’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

Close

hjör ‘The sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrviðr (noun m.)

kennings

Hjörviður,
‘The sword-tree, ’
   = WARRIOR

The sword-tree, → WARRIOR

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1] hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’: The ms. reading is ‘hiorviðr’, but normalisation to the younger, trisyllabic form of this word (ending -ur rather than -r) is needed to make up a regular six-syllable line. Desyllabification is first noted c. 1300 and becomes universal by the mid C15th (Stefán Karlsson 2004, 15), so this strongly indicates that the poem was composed in the C14th, although in positions where the original form is metrically guaranteed, a mixture of older (e.g. monosyllabic djarfr in l. 2) and later forms (e.g. sts 2/1, 7/2: see Notes) is apparent.

Close

hjör ‘The sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrviðr (noun m.)

kennings

Hjörviður,
‘The sword-tree, ’
   = WARRIOR

The sword-tree, → WARRIOR

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1] hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’: The ms. reading is ‘hiorviðr’, but normalisation to the younger, trisyllabic form of this word (ending -ur rather than -r) is needed to make up a regular six-syllable line. Desyllabification is first noted c. 1300 and becomes universal by the mid C15th (Stefán Karlsson 2004, 15), so this strongly indicates that the poem was composed in the C14th, although in positions where the original form is metrically guaranteed, a mixture of older (e.g. monosyllabic djarfr in l. 2) and later forms (e.g. sts 2/1, 7/2: see Notes) is apparent.

Close

viður ‘tree’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree < hjǫrviðr (noun m.)

kennings

Hjörviður,
‘The sword-tree, ’
   = WARRIOR

The sword-tree, → WARRIOR

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1] hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’: The ms. reading is ‘hiorviðr’, but normalisation to the younger, trisyllabic form of this word (ending -ur rather than -r) is needed to make up a regular six-syllable line. Desyllabification is first noted c. 1300 and becomes universal by the mid C15th (Stefán Karlsson 2004, 15), so this strongly indicates that the poem was composed in the C14th, although in positions where the original form is metrically guaranteed, a mixture of older (e.g. monosyllabic djarfr in l. 2) and later forms (e.g. sts 2/1, 7/2: see Notes) is apparent.

Close

viður ‘tree’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree < hjǫrviðr (noun m.)

kennings

Hjörviður,
‘The sword-tree, ’
   = WARRIOR

The sword-tree, → WARRIOR

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1] hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’: The ms. reading is ‘hiorviðr’, but normalisation to the younger, trisyllabic form of this word (ending -ur rather than -r) is needed to make up a regular six-syllable line. Desyllabification is first noted c. 1300 and becomes universal by the mid C15th (Stefán Karlsson 2004, 15), so this strongly indicates that the poem was composed in the C14th, although in positions where the original form is metrically guaranteed, a mixture of older (e.g. monosyllabic djarfr in l. 2) and later forms (e.g. sts 2/1, 7/2: see Notes) is apparent.

Close

Hlakkar ‘of Hlǫkk’

2. Hlǫkk (noun f.): Hlǫkk

kennings

hríðar Hlakkar,
‘in the storm of Hlǫkk, ’
   = BATTLE

in the storm of Hlǫkk, → BATTLE

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1, 2] djarfr hríðar Hlakkar ‘valiant in the storm of Hlǫkk <valkyrie> [BATTLE]’: The gen. sg. battle-kenning is taken here together with djarfr ‘valiant’, cf. Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’. The kenning cannot be combined with hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’ to produce an extended kenning since both are complete in themselves. Any solution must, however, be tentative, given the incomplete state of the helmingr.

Close

Hlakkar ‘of Hlǫkk’

2. Hlǫkk (noun f.): Hlǫkk

kennings

hríðar Hlakkar,
‘in the storm of Hlǫkk, ’
   = BATTLE

in the storm of Hlǫkk, → BATTLE

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1, 2] djarfr hríðar Hlakkar ‘valiant in the storm of Hlǫkk <valkyrie> [BATTLE]’: The gen. sg. battle-kenning is taken here together with djarfr ‘valiant’, cf. Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’. The kenning cannot be combined with hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’ to produce an extended kenning since both are complete in themselves. Any solution must, however, be tentative, given the incomplete state of the helmingr.

Close

hríðar ‘in the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

kennings

hríðar Hlakkar,
‘in the storm of Hlǫkk, ’
   = BATTLE

in the storm of Hlǫkk, → BATTLE

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1, 2] djarfr hríðar Hlakkar ‘valiant in the storm of Hlǫkk <valkyrie> [BATTLE]’: The gen. sg. battle-kenning is taken here together with djarfr ‘valiant’, cf. Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’. The kenning cannot be combined with hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’ to produce an extended kenning since both are complete in themselves. Any solution must, however, be tentative, given the incomplete state of the helmingr.

Close

hríðar ‘in the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

kennings

hríðar Hlakkar,
‘in the storm of Hlǫkk, ’
   = BATTLE

in the storm of Hlǫkk, → BATTLE

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1, 2] djarfr hríðar Hlakkar ‘valiant in the storm of Hlǫkk <valkyrie> [BATTLE]’: The gen. sg. battle-kenning is taken here together with djarfr ‘valiant’, cf. Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’. The kenning cannot be combined with hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’ to produce an extended kenning since both are complete in themselves. Any solution must, however, be tentative, given the incomplete state of the helmingr.

Close

djarfr ‘valiant’

djarfr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bold

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1, 2] djarfr hríðar Hlakkar ‘valiant in the storm of Hlǫkk <valkyrie> [BATTLE]’: The gen. sg. battle-kenning is taken here together with djarfr ‘valiant’, cf. Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’. The kenning cannot be combined with hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’ to produce an extended kenning since both are complete in themselves. Any solution must, however, be tentative, given the incomplete state of the helmingr.

Close

djarfr ‘valiant’

djarfr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bold

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [1, 2] djarfr hríðar Hlakkar ‘valiant in the storm of Hlǫkk <valkyrie> [BATTLE]’: The gen. sg. battle-kenning is taken here together with djarfr ‘valiant’, cf. Anon Liðs 1/5 hugrakkir hlakkar ‘brave-minded in battle’. The kenning cannot be combined with hjörviður ‘sword-tree [WARRIOR]’ to produce an extended kenning since both are complete in themselves. Any solution must, however, be tentative, given the incomplete state of the helmingr.

Close

með ‘along’

með (prep.): with

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

Close

karfa ‘the ship’

1. karfi (noun m.; °-a): ship, vessel

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

Close

... ‘...’

(non-lexical)

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

Close

... ‘’

(non-lexical)

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

Close

hendi ‘caught’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

Close

alt ‘everything’

allr (adj.): all

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [5] alt ‘everything’: This is taken here in apposition to handsax (n. acc. sg.) ‘short-sword’ and benlaxa (m. acc. pl.) ‘wound-salmon [SWORDS]’. It could alternatively be an adv., perhaps ‘all the way’, hence ‘(caught, grasped) entirely, firmly’.

Close

alt ‘everything’

allr (adj.): all

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [5] alt ‘everything’: This is taken here in apposition to handsax (n. acc. sg.) ‘short-sword’ and benlaxa (m. acc. pl.) ‘wound-salmon [SWORDS]’. It could alternatively be an adv., perhaps ‘all the way’, hence ‘(caught, grasped) entirely, firmly’.

Close

‘by’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [5] hjöltum ‘by the hilt’: Hjöltum is dat. pl. of hjalt n., either the pommel or knob at the distal end of the hilt, or the cross-guard between hilt and blade. The pl. normally means both parts together, and the part between is called meðalkafli m. ‘middle-piece, hilt’; this is what Óláfr catches the swords by in the prose sources.

Close

‘by’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [5] hjöltum ‘by the hilt’: Hjöltum is dat. pl. of hjalt n., either the pommel or knob at the distal end of the hilt, or the cross-guard between hilt and blade. The pl. normally means both parts together, and the part between is called meðalkafli m. ‘middle-piece, hilt’; this is what Óláfr catches the swords by in the prose sources.

Close

hjöltum ‘the hilt’

hjalti (noun m.; °-a): [hilt]

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [5] hjöltum ‘by the hilt’: Hjöltum is dat. pl. of hjalt n., either the pommel or knob at the distal end of the hilt, or the cross-guard between hilt and blade. The pl. normally means both parts together, and the part between is called meðalkafli m. ‘middle-piece, hilt’; this is what Óláfr catches the swords by in the prose sources.

Close

hjöltum ‘the hilt’

hjalti (noun m.; °-a): [hilt]

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [5] hjöltum ‘by the hilt’: Hjöltum is dat. pl. of hjalt n., either the pommel or knob at the distal end of the hilt, or the cross-guard between hilt and blade. The pl. normally means both parts together, and the part between is called meðalkafli m. ‘middle-piece, hilt’; this is what Óláfr catches the swords by in the prose sources.

Close

hand ‘short’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand < handsax (noun n.): [with short-swords]

notes

[All]: The handsaxaleikr ‘short-sword-game’ described in this stanza is mentioned in most sources as a special skill (íþrótt) of Óláfr’s; see Hkr (ÍF 26, 333); ÓT (1958-2000, II, 121, 227); HSt Rst 25; and Introduction above. — [All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

hand ‘short’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand < handsax (noun n.): [with short-swords]

notes

[All]: The handsaxaleikr ‘short-sword-game’ described in this stanza is mentioned in most sources as a special skill (íþrótt) of Óláfr’s; see Hkr (ÍF 26, 333); ÓT (1958-2000, II, 121, 227); HSt Rst 25; and Introduction above. — [All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

hand ‘short’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand < handsax (noun n.): [with short-swords]

notes

[All]: The handsaxaleikr ‘short-sword-game’ described in this stanza is mentioned in most sources as a special skill (íþrótt) of Óláfr’s; see Hkr (ÍF 26, 333); ÓT (1958-2000, II, 121, 227); HSt Rst 25; and Introduction above. — [All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

sax ‘sword’

2. sax (noun n.; °-; *-): sword, prow < handsax (noun n.): [with short-swords]

notes

[All]: The handsaxaleikr ‘short-sword-game’ described in this stanza is mentioned in most sources as a special skill (íþrótt) of Óláfr’s; see Hkr (ÍF 26, 333); ÓT (1958-2000, II, 121, 227); HSt Rst 25; and Introduction above. — [All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

sax ‘sword’

2. sax (noun n.; °-; *-): sword, prow < handsax (noun n.): [with short-swords]

notes

[All]: The handsaxaleikr ‘short-sword-game’ described in this stanza is mentioned in most sources as a special skill (íþrótt) of Óláfr’s; see Hkr (ÍF 26, 333); ÓT (1958-2000, II, 121, 227); HSt Rst 25; and Introduction above. — [All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

sax ‘sword’

2. sax (noun n.; °-; *-): sword, prow < handsax (noun n.): [with short-swords]

notes

[All]: The handsaxaleikr ‘short-sword-game’ described in this stanza is mentioned in most sources as a special skill (íþrótt) of Óláfr’s; see Hkr (ÍF 26, 333); ÓT (1958-2000, II, 121, 227); HSt Rst 25; and Introduction above. — [All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

ben ‘wound’

1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < benlax (noun m.)

kennings

benlaxa,
‘wound-salmon, ’
   = SWORDS

wound-salmon, → SWORDS

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

ben ‘wound’

1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < benlax (noun m.)

kennings

benlaxa,
‘wound-salmon, ’
   = SWORDS

wound-salmon, → SWORDS

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

laxa ‘salmon’

lax (noun m.; °; -ar): salmon < benlax (noun m.)

kennings

benlaxa,
‘wound-salmon, ’
   = SWORDS

wound-salmon, → SWORDS

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

Close

laxa ‘salmon’

lax (noun m.; °; -ar): salmon < benlax (noun m.)

kennings

benlaxa,
‘wound-salmon, ’
   = SWORDS

wound-salmon, → SWORDS

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [6] handsax og benlaxa ‘short-sword and wound-salmon [SWORDS]’: Finnur Jónsson (1884-91; Skj A) reads this line as ‘… ok segdi’ or ‘ok legdi’.

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öld ‘people’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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lofar ‘praise’

lofa (verb): praise, permit

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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öðling ‘prince’

ǫðlingr (noun m.; °; -ar): prince, ruler

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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mildan ‘the generous’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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oft ‘often’

opt (adv.): often

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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en ‘though’

4. en (conj.): than

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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þrjú ‘three’

þrír (num. cardinal): three

[8] þrjú *: þrjú eru 61

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [8] *: The ms. reading eru ‘are’ is hypermetrical and has been deleted here. The context requires a verb to be understood, however, and ‘[were]’ matches the pret. verbs in the stanza.

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þrjú ‘three’

þrír (num. cardinal): three

[8] þrjú *: þrjú eru 61

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [8] *: The ms. reading eru ‘are’ is hypermetrical and has been deleted here. The context requires a verb to be understood, however, and ‘[were]’ matches the pret. verbs in the stanza.

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* ‘’

(non-lexical)

[8] þrjú *: þrjú eru 61

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [8] *: The ms. reading eru ‘are’ is hypermetrical and has been deleted here. The context requires a verb to be understood, however, and ‘[were]’ matches the pret. verbs in the stanza.

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* ‘’

(non-lexical)

[8] þrjú *: þrjú eru 61

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction. — [8] *: The ms. reading eru ‘are’ is hypermetrical and has been deleted here. The context requires a verb to be understood, however, and ‘[were]’ matches the pret. verbs in the stanza.

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á ‘’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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lofti ‘aloft’

loft (noun n.): air, sky

notes

[All]: The Text, here and throughout this edn of the poem, is based on that of Ólafur Halldórsson in ÓT 1958-2000, III, xxxiii-xxxiv. Italics indicate poor legibility in the ms., even in Ólafur’s reading assisted by ultra-violet light; see Introduction.

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