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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 10I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1042.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
91011

gekk ‘put themselves’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

notes

[1, 3, 4] gekk á skotjǫrð heiðis ‘put themselves in the swaying earth of the hawk [HAND]’: An elaboration of the common expression ganga á hǫnd e-m, lit. ‘to go into sby’s hand’, hence ‘to submit to sby’ or (here) ‘to put oneself in sby’s hands’.

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heiðis ‘of the hawk’

heiðir (noun m.): hawk

kennings

skotjǫrð heiðis,
‘the swaying earth of the hawk, ’
   = HAND

the swaying earth of the hawk, → HAND

notes

[1, 3, 4] gekk á skotjǫrð heiðis ‘put themselves in the swaying earth of the hawk [HAND]’: An elaboration of the common expression ganga á hǫnd e-m, lit. ‘to go into sby’s hand’, hence ‘to submit to sby’ or (here) ‘to put oneself in sby’s hands’.

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hjaldr ‘of the uproar’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrmǫgnuðr (noun m.)

kennings

skjaldar hjaldrmagnaði.
‘uproar-increaser of the shield’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of the shield. → BATTLE
increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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hjaldr ‘of the uproar’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle < hjaldrmǫgnuðr (noun m.)

kennings

skjaldar hjaldrmagnaði.
‘uproar-increaser of the shield’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of the shield. → BATTLE
increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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magnaði ‘increaser’

mǫgnuðr (noun m.): increaser < hjaldrmǫgnuðr (noun m.)

kennings

skjaldar hjaldrmagnaði.
‘uproar-increaser of the shield’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of the shield. → BATTLE
increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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skjaldar ‘of the shield’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield

kennings

skjaldar hjaldrmagnaði.
‘uproar-increaser of the shield’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of the shield. → BATTLE
increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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skjaldar ‘of the shield’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield

kennings

skjaldar hjaldrmagnaði.
‘uproar-increaser of the shield’
   = WARRIOR

the uproar of the shield. → BATTLE
increaser of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
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á ‘in’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[1, 3, 4] gekk á skotjǫrð heiðis ‘put themselves in the swaying earth of the hawk [HAND]’: An elaboration of the common expression ganga á hǫnd e-m, lit. ‘to go into sby’s hand’, hence ‘to submit to sby’ or (here) ‘to put oneself in sby’s hands’.

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skreytta ‘adorned’

skreyta (verb): adorn

[3] skreytta: skreyta Bb

notes

[3] skreytta ‘adorned’: This straightforward emendation improves the skothending (ætt : -eytt-) and allows this word to be taken as a participial adj. qualifying jǫrð ‘earth’ rather than a verb ‘to adorn’, which would be difficult to fit into the syntax. Cf. Note to st. 5/3 ár* on single/double consonant spellings in Bb.

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skotjǫrð ‘the swaying earth’

skotjǫrð (noun f.): [swaying earth]

kennings

skotjǫrð heiðis,
‘the swaying earth of the hawk, ’
   = HAND

the swaying earth of the hawk, → HAND

notes

[1, 3, 4] gekk á skotjǫrð heiðis ‘put themselves in the swaying earth of the hawk [HAND]’: An elaboration of the common expression ganga á hǫnd e-m, lit. ‘to go into sby’s hand’, hence ‘to submit to sby’ or (here) ‘to put oneself in sby’s hands’. — [4] skotjǫrð ‘the swaying earth’: LP: skotjǫrð interprets this as skydende, udsendende jord ‘shooting, propelling earth’ and suggests it refers to the hawker’s hand propelling the bird into the air, but Kock (NN §2115) compares the hand-kenning bifvangr ýs ‘trembling field of the bow’, KormǪ Sigdr 7/3III. He suggests skot- means ‘swaying’ (cf. adj. skoteygr ‘wandering-eyed’) and like bif- merely ‘corrects’ the metaphor of ‘earth, land’ with a reference to the animate character of the human body.

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skotjǫrð ‘the swaying earth’

skotjǫrð (noun f.): [swaying earth]

kennings

skotjǫrð heiðis,
‘the swaying earth of the hawk, ’
   = HAND

the swaying earth of the hawk, → HAND

notes

[1, 3, 4] gekk á skotjǫrð heiðis ‘put themselves in the swaying earth of the hawk [HAND]’: An elaboration of the common expression ganga á hǫnd e-m, lit. ‘to go into sby’s hand’, hence ‘to submit to sby’ or (here) ‘to put oneself in sby’s hands’. — [4] skotjǫrð ‘the swaying earth’: LP: skotjǫrð interprets this as skydende, udsendende jord ‘shooting, propelling earth’ and suggests it refers to the hawker’s hand propelling the bird into the air, but Kock (NN §2115) compares the hand-kenning bifvangr ýs ‘trembling field of the bow’, KormǪ Sigdr 7/3III. He suggests skot- means ‘swaying’ (cf. adj. skoteygr ‘wandering-eyed’) and like bif- merely ‘corrects’ the metaphor of ‘earth, land’ with a reference to the animate character of the human body.

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loga ‘with the fire’

logi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flame

kennings

loga fjarðar,
‘with the fire of the fjord, ’
   = GOLD

with the fire of the fjord, → GOLD
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fjarðar ‘of the fjord’

fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord

kennings

loga fjarðar,
‘with the fire of the fjord, ’
   = GOLD

with the fire of the fjord, → GOLD
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vǫndum ‘a wicked’

vandr (adj.): difficult

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hvarf ‘turned’

1. hverfa (verb): turn, disappear

[7] hvarf: ‘hvraf’ Bb

notes

[7] hvarf ‘turned’: The Bb reading is evidently a scribal error, with the abbreviation for <ra> where <ar> was needed. On the placing of the verb, see Introduction.

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allr ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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ólítt ‘to no small degree’

ólítt (adv.): [to no small degree]

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nítti ‘rejected’

1. níta (verb): deny, reject

[8] nítti: om. Bb

notes

[8] nítti ‘rejected’: The final word of this line is omitted in Bb. Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggestion (1832, 11) of nítti (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘denied, rejected’ fits grammar, sense and metre, and has been adopted by all subsequent eds. 

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