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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þorf Lv 2I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorfinnr munnr, Lausavísur 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 847.

Þorfinnr munnrLausavísur
12

Røkkr ‘It grows dim’

1. røkkva (verb): grow dark

[1] Røkkr: reykr 68, Holm4, ‘Ræ̨kkr’ 325VII

Close

at ‘approaching’

3. at (prep.): at, to

Close

regni ‘downpour’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain

[1] regni: regn 325V

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

miklu ‘the great’

mikill (adj.; °mikinn): great, large

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

randar ‘of the shield-rim’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

[2] randar: randa J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Bæb, 61, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, DG8, 141ˣ

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[2] garðs randar ‘of the enclosure of the shield-rim [SHIELD]’: Rǫnd can refer either to a complete shield or to its rim, so if the well-supported gen. pl. reading randa is adopted instead of gen. sg. randar, garðs randa could mean ‘wall of shields, shield-wall’. Either way, Bjarni Aðalbjarnason in ÍF 27 notes the appropriateness of garðs alongside the weather imagery here, since garðr m. can also refer to a bank of cloud.

Close

randar ‘of the shield-rim’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

[2] randar: randa J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Bæb, 61, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, DG8, 141ˣ

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[2] garðs randar ‘of the enclosure of the shield-rim [SHIELD]’: Rǫnd can refer either to a complete shield or to its rim, so if the well-supported gen. pl. reading randa is adopted instead of gen. sg. randar, garðs randa could mean ‘wall of shields, shield-wall’. Either way, Bjarni Aðalbjarnason in ÍF 27 notes the appropriateness of garðs alongside the weather imagery here, since garðr m. can also refer to a bank of cloud.

Close

garðs ‘enclosure’

garðr (noun m.): enclosure, yard

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[2] garðs randar ‘of the enclosure of the shield-rim [SHIELD]’: Rǫnd can refer either to a complete shield or to its rim, so if the well-supported gen. pl. reading randa is adopted instead of gen. sg. randar, garðs randa could mean ‘wall of shields, shield-wall’. Either way, Bjarni Aðalbjarnason in ÍF 27 notes the appropriateness of garðs alongside the weather imagery here, since garðr m. can also refer to a bank of cloud.

Close

garðs ‘enclosure’

garðr (noun m.): enclosure, yard

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[2] garðs randar ‘of the enclosure of the shield-rim [SHIELD]’: Rǫnd can refer either to a complete shield or to its rim, so if the well-supported gen. pl. reading randa is adopted instead of gen. sg. randar, garðs randa could mean ‘wall of shields, shield-wall’. Either way, Bjarni Aðalbjarnason in ÍF 27 notes the appropriateness of garðs alongside the weather imagery here, since garðr m. can also refer to a bank of cloud.

Close

ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

[2] ins: hinn 68

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

[2] ins: hinn 68

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

harða ‘tough’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[2] harða: harði 68

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

harða ‘tough’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[2] harða: harði 68

kennings

miklu regni ins harða garðs randar;
‘the great downpour of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; ’
   = BATTLE

the tough enclosure of the shield-rim; → SHIELD
the great downpour of the SHIELD → BATTLE
Close

við ‘against’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[3] við: við viðr 321ˣ, með Bæb, om. 68

Close

vísa ‘prince [Óláfr]’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

[3] vísa: vísi Flat, 141ˣ, vísan Tóm

Close

Verdœla ‘of the Verdœlir’

verdœll (noun m.): [Verdœlir]

[4] Verdœla: verðunga 61

notes

[4] Verdœla ‘of the Verdœlir’: People of Veradalr (Verdalen, Nord-Trøndelag), in which Stiklestad is situated.

Close

lið ‘the force’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

[4] lið: ‘sid’ Tóm

Close

Verjum ‘Let us defend’

3. verja (verb): defend

Close

ǫrvan ‘the generous’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave

[5] ǫrvan: ‘[…]uan’ Holm4

Close

ǫlum ‘let us feed’

ala (verb; °elr; ól, ólu; alinn): to beget, produce, procreate

[6] ǫlum: ǫllum 972ˣ, ‘ollum’ 141ˣ

Close

teitan ‘the cheerful’

teitr (adj.): glad

[6] teitan: teita Tóm

kennings

teitan mô sveita;
‘the cheerful gull of gore; ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the cheerful gull of gore; → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

‘gull’

már (noun m.): gull

[6] mô: ná 321ˣ, Bæb, 68

kennings

teitan mô sveita;
‘the cheerful gull of gore; ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the cheerful gull of gore; → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

sveita ‘of gore’

sveiti (noun m.; °-a): blood

kennings

teitan mô sveita;
‘the cheerful gull of gore; ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the cheerful gull of gore; → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

fellum ‘let us fell’

3. fella (verb): fell, kill

[7] fellum: fellim 321ˣ

Close

Þrœndr ‘the Þrœndr’

þrœndr (noun m.; °; þrǿndir/þrǿndr): people from Tröndelag

[7] Þrœndr: ‘þręnd’ 325VII

notes

[7] Þrœndr: The people of Þrándheimr (Trøndelag).

Close

Þundar ‘of Þundr’

Þundr (noun m.): Þundr

[7] Þundar: ‘þr[...]dar’ Holm4, ‘þyndar’ Bb, ‘þundu’ DG8

kennings

hreggi Þundar;
‘the storm of Þundr; ’
   = BATTLE

the storm of Þundr; → BATTLE
Close

eggjumk ‘urging’

eggja (verb; °-að-): urge

[8] eggjumk: eggjum J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 61, Bb, DG8, eggja Flat, 141ˣ

Close

vér ‘we are’

vér (pron.; °gen. vár, dat./acc. oss): we, us, our

[8] vér: nú Bæb, 68, 61, Bb, Tóm, nú added in margin 325VII, ek nú Flat, 141ˣ

Close

hreggi ‘the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

kennings

hreggi Þundar;
‘the storm of Þundr; ’
   = BATTLE

the storm of Þundr; → BATTLE
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In ÓH-Hkr, as for Gizsv Lv. In the less polished context of ÓHLeg, Þorfinnr skald is with the king and speaks the stanza as his troops advance.

For the battle of Stiklastaðir (Stiklestad) and other skaldic poetry associated with it, see the entry on Óláfr Haraldsson in ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume. — [5-8]: The 1st pers. pl. imperatives in this helmingr (verjum ‘let us defend’, l. 5, ǫlum ‘let us feed’, l. 6, and fellum ‘let us fell’, l. 7) are typical of skaldic exhortations to battle; cf. Anon Liðs 1, Rv Lv 31II, Nefari LvII, Blakkr Lv 1II

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