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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þham Magndr 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Þorkell hamarskáld, Magnússdrápa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 410-11.

Þorkell hamarskáldMagnússdrápa
12

Vítt ‘far and wide’

víðr (adj.): far

[1] Vítt: Vítr E

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sínar ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

[1] sínar sveitir: sinnar sveitar FskBˣ

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sveitir ‘companies’

sveit (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): host, company

[1] sínar sveitir: sinnar sveitar FskBˣ

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Þórir ‘Þórir’

Þórir (noun m.): Þórir

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vôrut ‘were not’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[3] vôrut: vru 39, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, FskBˣ, FskAˣ

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hauldum ‘for the freeholders’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

notes

[3] hauldum ‘for the freeholders’: See Note to Anon Nkt 15/2.

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[4] með: meðr FskAˣ

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Agli ‘Egill’

Egill (noun m.): Egill

[4] Agli: ‘Egli’ FskBˣ, ‘æghle’ FskAˣ

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Snǫrp ‘great’

snarpr (adj.): sharp, keen

[5] Snǫrp: ‘snavp’ H

notes

[5, 8] frák snǫrp mein … endr á ‘I heard that great harm … formerly befell’: Lit. ‘I heard that great harm … [was] present for’. Á lit. ‘on’ carries alliteration (and full stress) and is therefore used adverbially here, with the suppressed verb vera ‘be’. For the verb-adv. collocation vera á ‘be present’, see Fritzner: vera á. Skj B reads frák snǫrp mein á því (‘I heard that great harm [resulted] from it’) treating á as a prep. (á því ‘from it’; so also Skald; ÍF 28; ÍF 29). That reading is unlikely, because monosyllabic proclitic prepositions do not otherwise receive full stress.

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frák ‘I heard that’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

notes

[5, 8] frák snǫrp mein … endr á ‘I heard that great harm … formerly befell’: Lit. ‘I heard that great harm … [was] present for’. Á lit. ‘on’ carries alliteration (and full stress) and is therefore used adverbially here, with the suppressed verb vera ‘be’. For the verb-adv. collocation vera á ‘be present’, see Fritzner: vera á. Skj B reads frák snǫrp mein á því (‘I heard that great harm [resulted] from it’) treating á as a prep. (á því ‘from it’; so also Skald; ÍF 28; ÍF 29). That reading is unlikely, because monosyllabic proclitic prepositions do not otherwise receive full stress.

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á ‘’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[5, 8] frák snǫrp mein … endr á ‘I heard that great harm … formerly befell’: Lit. ‘I heard that great harm … [was] present for’. Á lit. ‘on’ carries alliteration (and full stress) and is therefore used adverbially here, with the suppressed verb vera ‘be’. For the verb-adv. collocation vera á ‘be present’, see Fritzner: vera á. Skj B reads frák snǫrp mein á því (‘I heard that great harm [resulted] from it’) treating á as a prep. (á því ‘from it’; so also Skald; ÍF 28; ÍF 29). That reading is unlikely, because monosyllabic proclitic prepositions do not otherwise receive full stress.

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urpu ‘threw’

1. verpa (verb): to throw, cast (up)

[5] urpu: uppi FskBˣ

notes

[5, 8] urpu steini of afl sér ‘threw a stone beyond their strength’: The expression ‘to throw a stone beyond one’s strength’ (i.e. ‘to take on more than one can handle’) is also found in Eg (ÍF 2, 198): at þú, Egill, munir hafa kastat steini um megn þér í yðrum skiptum ‘that you, Egill, may have thrown a stone beyond your strength as far as your dealings are concerned’.

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endr ‘formerly befell’

endr (adv.): formerly, once, again

notes

[5, 8] frák snǫrp mein … endr á ‘I heard that great harm … formerly befell’: Lit. ‘I heard that great harm … [was] present for’. Á lit. ‘on’ carries alliteration (and full stress) and is therefore used adverbially here, with the suppressed verb vera ‘be’. For the verb-adv. collocation vera á ‘be present’, see Fritzner: vera á. Skj B reads frák snǫrp mein á því (‘I heard that great harm [resulted] from it’) treating á as a prep. (á því ‘from it’; so also Skald; ÍF 28; ÍF 29). That reading is unlikely, because monosyllabic proclitic prepositions do not otherwise receive full stress. — [6] endr ‘formerly’: Skj B takes this adv. with the second cl., which creates an awkward tripartite l. (see NN §1150).

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endr ‘formerly befell’

endr (adv.): formerly, once, again

notes

[5, 8] frák snǫrp mein … endr á ‘I heard that great harm … formerly befell’: Lit. ‘I heard that great harm … [was] present for’. Á lit. ‘on’ carries alliteration (and full stress) and is therefore used adverbially here, with the suppressed verb vera ‘be’. For the verb-adv. collocation vera á ‘be present’, see Fritzner: vera á. Skj B reads frák snǫrp mein á því (‘I heard that great harm [resulted] from it’) treating á as a prep. (á því ‘from it’; so also Skald; ÍF 28; ÍF 29). That reading is unlikely, because monosyllabic proclitic prepositions do not otherwise receive full stress. — [6] endr ‘formerly’: Skj B takes this adv. with the second cl., which creates an awkward tripartite l. (see NN §1150).

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Skjalgs ‘Skjálgr’s’

1. skjalgr (noun m.): Skjálgr

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vinum ‘friends’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

[6] vinum: vinir E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ

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lendir ‘the district’

lendr (adj.): landed

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við ‘against’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[7] við: so H, Hr, F, Kˣ, 39, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, FskBˣ, ‘[...]’ Mork, viðr FskAˣ

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morð ‘of the strife-’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðvalr (noun m.)

kennings

brynni morðvals.
‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon.’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-falcon. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the thirst-quencher of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] brynni morðvals ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon [RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The variant brynni morðhauks ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-hawk’ (so , E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ) is possible and has been adopted in Skj B and Skald. But it is less preferable from a metrical point of view (heavy dip in position 4), and the other ms. witnesses show that it is a Hkr innovation.

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morð ‘of the strife-’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðvalr (noun m.)

kennings

brynni morðvals.
‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon.’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-falcon. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the thirst-quencher of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] brynni morðvals ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon [RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The variant brynni morðhauks ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-hawk’ (so , E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ) is possible and has been adopted in Skj B and Skald. But it is less preferable from a metrical point of view (heavy dip in position 4), and the other ms. witnesses show that it is a Hkr innovation.

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vals ‘falcon’

2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon < morðvalr (noun m.)

[7] ‑vals: ‑hauks Kˣ, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, ‑haugs 39, hvals FskBˣ

kennings

brynni morðvals.
‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon.’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-falcon. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the thirst-quencher of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] brynni morðvals ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon [RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The variant brynni morðhauks ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-hawk’ (so , E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ) is possible and has been adopted in Skj B and Skald. But it is less preferable from a metrical point of view (heavy dip in position 4), and the other ms. witnesses show that it is a Hkr innovation.

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vals ‘falcon’

2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon < morðvalr (noun m.)

[7] ‑vals: ‑hauks Kˣ, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, ‑haugs 39, hvals FskBˣ

kennings

brynni morðvals.
‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon.’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-falcon. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the thirst-quencher of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] brynni morðvals ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon [RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The variant brynni morðhauks ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-hawk’ (so , E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ) is possible and has been adopted in Skj B and Skald. But it is less preferable from a metrical point of view (heavy dip in position 4), and the other ms. witnesses show that it is a Hkr innovation.

Close

brynni ‘the thirst-quencher’

brynnir (noun m.): [thirst-quencher]

[7] brynni: brynju 42ˣ

kennings

brynni morðvals.
‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon.’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-falcon. → RAVEN/EAGLE
the thirst-quencher of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[7] brynni morðvals ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-falcon [RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The variant brynni morðhauks ‘the thirst-quencher of the strife-hawk’ (so , E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ) is possible and has been adopted in Skj B and Skald. But it is less preferable from a metrical point of view (heavy dip in position 4), and the other ms. witnesses show that it is a Hkr innovation.

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mein ‘harm’

mein (noun n.; °-s; -): harm, injury

notes

[5, 8] frák snǫrp mein … endr á ‘I heard that great harm … formerly befell’: Lit. ‘I heard that great harm … [was] present for’. Á lit. ‘on’ carries alliteration (and full stress) and is therefore used adverbially here, with the suppressed verb vera ‘be’. For the verb-adv. collocation vera á ‘be present’, see Fritzner: vera á. Skj B reads frák snǫrp mein á því (‘I heard that great harm [resulted] from it’) treating á as a prep. (á því ‘from it’; so also Skald; ÍF 28; ÍF 29). That reading is unlikely, because monosyllabic proclitic prepositions do not otherwise receive full stress.

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of ‘beyond’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

notes

[5, 8] urpu steini of afl sér ‘threw a stone beyond their strength’: The expression ‘to throw a stone beyond one’s strength’ (i.e. ‘to take on more than one can handle’) is also found in Eg (ÍF 2, 198): at þú, Egill, munir hafa kastat steini um megn þér í yðrum skiptum ‘that you, Egill, may have thrown a stone beyond your strength as far as your dealings are concerned’.

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afl ‘strength’

2. afl (noun n.; °-s; *-): strength

[8] afl: alf Hr, FskBˣ, afls 42ˣ

notes

[5, 8] urpu steini of afl sér ‘threw a stone beyond their strength’: The expression ‘to throw a stone beyond one’s strength’ (i.e. ‘to take on more than one can handle’) is also found in Eg (ÍF 2, 198): at þú, Egill, munir hafa kastat steini um megn þér í yðrum skiptum ‘that you, Egill, may have thrown a stone beyond your strength as far as your dealings are concerned’.

Close

sér ‘their’

sik (pron.; °gen. sín, dat. sér): (refl. pron.)

notes

[5, 8] urpu steini of afl sér ‘threw a stone beyond their strength’: The expression ‘to throw a stone beyond one’s strength’ (i.e. ‘to take on more than one can handle’) is also found in Eg (ÍF 2, 198): at þú, Egill, munir hafa kastat steini um megn þér í yðrum skiptum ‘that you, Egill, may have thrown a stone beyond your strength as far as your dealings are concerned’.

Close

steini ‘a stone’

steinn (noun m.; °steins; steinar): stone, colour

notes

[5, 8] urpu steini of afl sér ‘threw a stone beyond their strength’: The expression ‘to throw a stone beyond one’s strength’ (i.e. ‘to take on more than one can handle’) is also found in Eg (ÍF 2, 198): at þú, Egill, munir hafa kastat steini um megn þér í yðrum skiptum ‘that you, Egill, may have thrown a stone beyond your strength as far as your dealings are concerned’.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The uprising against Magnús in 1094, spearheaded by the district chieftains Steigar-Þórir Þórðarson, Egill Áskelsson (or Ásláksson) and Skjálgr.

For Þórir and Egill, see SteigÞ Biography and Note to Kv 1/1. Skjálgr is identified as ‘Skjálgr af Jaðri’ (‘Skjálgr from Jæren’) in Mork and Fsk (see Mork 1928-32, 299; ÍF 29, 303), which suggests that he could have been a descendant of the powerful chieftain Erlingr Skjálgsson af Sóla (d. 1028) who had a son named Skjálgr. The present Skjálgr is otherwise unknown, however, and Hkr merely calls him ‘a powerful and wealthy man’ (maðr, ríkr ok auðigr; ÍF 28, 214). — [6-7] lendir menn ‘the district chieftains’: Lit. ‘landed men’. These were men who had been appointed by the king to serve as judicial administrators over one or more districts, men who held land in fief from the king. See also BjKálfs Lv, Anon Nkt 29 and Ólhv Hryn 2.

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