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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 19II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 19’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 744.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
181920

kapp ‘the vigour’

kapp (noun n.; °-s; *-): strength, vigour, courage < kappstuddr (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[1] kappstudda ‘vigour-supported’: Hap. leg.

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studda ‘supported’

2. styðja (verb): protect, support < kappstuddr (adj./verb p.p.)

[1] ‑studda: ‑stadda 8

notes

[1] kappstudda ‘vigour-supported’: Hap. leg.

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kæris ‘of the litigator’

kærir (noun m.): [litigator]

kennings

kæris Norðmæra
‘of the litigator of the Norðmærir ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Hákon

the litigator of the Norðmærir → NORWEGIAN KING = Hákon
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Norðmæra ‘of the Norðmærir’

norðmœrr (noun m.): [Norðmærir]

kennings

kæris Norðmæra
‘of the litigator of the Norðmærir ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Hákon

the litigator of the Norðmærir → NORWEGIAN KING = Hákon
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her ‘The host’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < hervaliðr (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[3] hervalðir ‘host-selected’: Hap. leg. LP: hervaliðr suggests the possible meanings meget udsøgt, udmærket ‘very select, outstanding’ or valgt af hæren ‘chosen by the army’.

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valðir ‘selected’

velja (verb): choose < hervaliðr (adj./verb p.p.)

[3] ‑valðir: faldir Flat

notes

[3] hervalðir ‘host-selected’: Hap. leg. LP: hervaliðr suggests the possible meanings meget udsøgt, udmærket ‘very select, outstanding’ or valgt af hæren ‘chosen by the army’.

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gunn ‘with battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnvers (noun n.): battle-verse

kennings

gunnversum.
‘with battle-verses. ’
   = BATTLE

with battle-verses. → BATTLE

notes

[4] gunnversum ‘with battle-verses [BATTLE]’: Taken here as a kenning for ‘battle’ (so also Skj B, LP: gunnvers and Meissner 197). The cpd could also be interpreted in a more literal sense, to the effect that the Norw. troops shouted incentive battle cries at the Scots.

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versum ‘verses’

2. vers (noun n.; °vers; -): [verse] < gunnvers (noun n.): battle-verse

kennings

gunnversum.
‘with battle-verses. ’
   = BATTLE

with battle-verses. → BATTLE

notes

[4] gunnversum ‘with battle-verses [BATTLE]’: Taken here as a kenning for ‘battle’ (so also Skj B, LP: gunnvers and Meissner 197). The cpd could also be interpreted in a more literal sense, to the effect that the Norw. troops shouted incentive battle cries at the Scots.

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in ‘The’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[5] in geðrakka ‘the valiant’: Lit. ‘the mind-valiant’ (so 8). In gunnrakka ‘the battle-valiant’ (so F) is contextually and metrically possible but looks like a repetition of gunn- ‘battle-’ (l. 4).

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geðrakka ‘valiant’

geðrakkr (adj.): [valiant]

[5] geðrakka: so 8, gunnrakka F, geðrakki Flat

notes

[5] in geðrakka ‘the valiant’: Lit. ‘the mind-valiant’ (so 8). In gunnrakka ‘the battle-valiant’ (so F) is contextually and metrically possible but looks like a repetition of gunn- ‘battle-’ (l. 4).

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gætis ‘of the guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

kennings

gætis hásæta
‘of the guardian of rowing-benches ’
   = CAPTAIN

the guardian of rowing-benches → CAPTAIN

notes

[6] gætis hásæta ‘of the guardian of rowing-benches [CAPTAIN]’: See also st. 1/8 above.

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hásæta ‘of rowing-benches’

hásæti (noun n.): high-seat

kennings

gætis hásæta
‘of the guardian of rowing-benches ’
   = CAPTAIN

the guardian of rowing-benches → CAPTAIN

notes

[6] gætis hásæta ‘of the guardian of rowing-benches [CAPTAIN]’: See also st. 1/8 above.

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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[7] at: so 8, Flat, af F

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hjörstærðum ‘the sword-swelled’

hjǫrstœrðr (adj.): [sword-swelled]

[7] hjörstærðum: ‘hiordstordu’ 8, hjörstærðu Flat

notes

[7] hjörstærðum ‘sword-swelled’: Hap. leg.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

During the battle described in st. 18 above, there was such a violent storm that Hákon could not launch any boats to come to the relief of the men on the beach. Finally the Norwegians were able to regroup, and the Scots retreated to a hill. Some skirmishes occurred between the two armies before the Norwegians made an assault on the hill.

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