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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hrafn 16II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrafnsmál 16’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 741.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrafnsmál
151617

of ‘around’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[1] of: á Flat

Close

böð ‘the battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle < bǫðfúss (adj.)

[1] böð‑: banda 304ˣ

Close

fjöl ‘The sorcery’

2. fjǫl (noun n.): very < fjǫlmagnaðr (adj.)

[2] fjöl‑: so 304ˣ, Flat, fjölð F

notes

[2] fjölmagnat ‘sorcery-strengthened’: Hap. leg. See also Note to 15/2, 3-4 above.

Close

magnat ‘strengthened’

magna (verb): strengthen, increase < fjǫlmagnaðr (adj.)

[2] ‑magnat: ‘‑magnid’ 304ˣ

notes

[2] fjölmagnat ‘sorcery-strengthened’: Hap. leg. See also Note to 15/2, 3-4 above.

Close

hregg ‘hailstorm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

Close

á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

notes

[3, 4] á herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar ‘on the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea [SHIPS]’: So NN §1359 with reference to st. 2/7 above. Skj B takes hríðar ‘of the sea’ with hregg ‘hailstorm’ (l. 3), presumably to avoid an over-determined kenning. Sturla did not seem to find such kennings unacceptable at all, however. For the first element in the cpd brimskíðum ‘surf-skis’, see Note to st. 1/3-4 above. Herbygðr ‘troop-inhabited’ (dat. pl. herbygðum) (l. 3) is a hap. leg.

Close

her ‘the troop’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herbyggðr (adj.)

kennings

herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar.
‘the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. ’
   = SHIPS

the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. → SHIPS

notes

[3, 4] á herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar ‘on the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea [SHIPS]’: So NN §1359 with reference to st. 2/7 above. Skj B takes hríðar ‘of the sea’ with hregg ‘hailstorm’ (l. 3), presumably to avoid an over-determined kenning. Sturla did not seem to find such kennings unacceptable at all, however. For the first element in the cpd brimskíðum ‘surf-skis’, see Note to st. 1/3-4 above. Herbygðr ‘troop-inhabited’ (dat. pl. herbygðum) (l. 3) is a hap. leg.

Close

bygðum ‘inhabited’

2. byggja (verb; °byggir/byggvir; byggði; byggðr): inhabit, dwell; build, found < herbyggðr (adj.)

[3] ‑bygðum: bygðir 304ˣ, ‑dyggva Flat

kennings

herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar.
‘the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. ’
   = SHIPS

the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. → SHIPS

notes

[3, 4] á herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar ‘on the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea [SHIPS]’: So NN §1359 with reference to st. 2/7 above. Skj B takes hríðar ‘of the sea’ with hregg ‘hailstorm’ (l. 3), presumably to avoid an over-determined kenning. Sturla did not seem to find such kennings unacceptable at all, however. For the first element in the cpd brimskíðum ‘surf-skis’, see Note to st. 1/3-4 above. Herbygðr ‘troop-inhabited’ (dat. pl. herbygðum) (l. 3) is a hap. leg.

Close

hríðar ‘of the sea’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

kennings

herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar.
‘the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. ’
   = SHIPS

the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. → SHIPS

notes

[3, 4] á herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar ‘on the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea [SHIPS]’: So NN §1359 with reference to st. 2/7 above. Skj B takes hríðar ‘of the sea’ with hregg ‘hailstorm’ (l. 3), presumably to avoid an over-determined kenning. Sturla did not seem to find such kennings unacceptable at all, however. For the first element in the cpd brimskíðum ‘surf-skis’, see Note to st. 1/3-4 above. Herbygðr ‘troop-inhabited’ (dat. pl. herbygðum) (l. 3) is a hap. leg.

Close

brim ‘surf’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimskíð (noun n.): surf-ski

kennings

herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar.
‘the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. ’
   = SHIPS

the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. → SHIPS

notes

[3, 4] á herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar ‘on the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea [SHIPS]’: So NN §1359 with reference to st. 2/7 above. Skj B takes hríðar ‘of the sea’ with hregg ‘hailstorm’ (l. 3), presumably to avoid an over-determined kenning. Sturla did not seem to find such kennings unacceptable at all, however. For the first element in the cpd brimskíðum ‘surf-skis’, see Note to st. 1/3-4 above. Herbygðr ‘troop-inhabited’ (dat. pl. herbygðum) (l. 3) is a hap. leg.

Close

skíðum ‘skis’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < brimskíð (noun n.): surf-ski

kennings

herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar.
‘the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. ’
   = SHIPS

the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea. → SHIPS

notes

[3, 4] á herbygðum brimskíðum hríðar ‘on the troop-inhabited surf-skis of the sea [SHIPS]’: So NN §1359 with reference to st. 2/7 above. Skj B takes hríðar ‘of the sea’ with hregg ‘hailstorm’ (l. 3), presumably to avoid an over-determined kenning. Sturla did not seem to find such kennings unacceptable at all, however. For the first element in the cpd brimskíðum ‘surf-skis’, see Note to st. 1/3-4 above. Herbygðr ‘troop-inhabited’ (dat. pl. herbygðum) (l. 3) is a hap. leg.

Close

alkeppna ‘the very vigorous’

alkeppinn (adj./verb p.p.): [very vigorous]

Close

öld ‘crew’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

[6] öld: öll Flat

Close

grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

[7] grundar: grunda Flat

kennings

Undit grand grundar gjálfrs
‘The twisted harm of the land of the surge ’
   = STORM

the land of the surge → SEA
The twisted harm of the SEA → STORM

notes

[7-8] undit grand grundar gjálfrs ‘the twisted harm of the land of the surge [SEA > STORM]’: LP: vinda 3 suggests that Sturla may have had the mythological Miðgarðsormr (‘World-serpent’) in mind here.

Close

grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

[7] grundar: grunda Flat

kennings

Undit grand grundar gjálfrs
‘The twisted harm of the land of the surge ’
   = STORM

the land of the surge → SEA
The twisted harm of the SEA → STORM

notes

[7-8] undit grand grundar gjálfrs ‘the twisted harm of the land of the surge [SEA > STORM]’: LP: vinda 3 suggests that Sturla may have had the mythological Miðgarðsormr (‘World-serpent’) in mind here.

Close

gjálfrs ‘of the surge’

gjalfr (noun n.; °-s): surge, waves

[7] gjálfrs: gjálfr F, gjálf 304ˣ, gjálfs‑ Flat

kennings

Undit grand grundar gjálfrs
‘The twisted harm of the land of the surge ’
   = STORM

the land of the surge → SEA
The twisted harm of the SEA → STORM

notes

[7-8] undit grand grundar gjálfrs ‘the twisted harm of the land of the surge [SEA > STORM]’: LP: vinda 3 suggests that Sturla may have had the mythological Miðgarðsormr (‘World-serpent’) in mind here.

Close

gjálfrs ‘of the surge’

gjalfr (noun n.; °-s): surge, waves

[7] gjálfrs: gjálfr F, gjálf 304ˣ, gjálfs‑ Flat

kennings

Undit grand grundar gjálfrs
‘The twisted harm of the land of the surge ’
   = STORM

the land of the surge → SEA
The twisted harm of the SEA → STORM

notes

[7-8] undit grand grundar gjálfrs ‘the twisted harm of the land of the surge [SEA > STORM]’: LP: vinda 3 suggests that Sturla may have had the mythological Miðgarðsormr (‘World-serpent’) in mind here.

Close

undit ‘The twisted’

undinn (adj./verb p.p.): twisted

[7] undit: undir 304ˣ, ‑undi Flat

kennings

Undit grand grundar gjálfrs
‘The twisted harm of the land of the surge ’
   = STORM

the land of the surge → SEA
The twisted harm of the SEA → STORM

notes

[7-8] undit grand grundar gjálfrs ‘the twisted harm of the land of the surge [SEA > STORM]’: LP: vinda 3 suggests that Sturla may have had the mythological Miðgarðsormr (‘World-serpent’) in mind here.

Close

grand ‘harm’

grand (noun n.): injury

kennings

Undit grand grundar gjálfrs
‘The twisted harm of the land of the surge ’
   = STORM

the land of the surge → SEA
The twisted harm of the SEA → STORM

notes

[7-8] undit grand grundar gjálfrs ‘the twisted harm of the land of the surge [SEA > STORM]’: LP: vinda 3 suggests that Sturla may have had the mythological Miðgarðsormr (‘World-serpent’) in mind here.

Close

Skotlandi ‘Scotland’

Skotland (noun n.): [Scotland]

Close

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As st. 15 above.

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