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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 2VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 2’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 8-9.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
123

þeirar ‘of that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[1] þeirar [sólar] ‘of that [sun]’: The gen. pron. refers back to sólar (1/8).

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heims ‘of the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

notes

[1-2] heims ... heimi ... heims: In dróttkvætt metre aðalhending is not appropriate in an odd-numbered l., hence Kock’s emendation of l. 1 (Skald) to þeirar húms í heimi. But exceptions were tolerated, and the rhyming pattern here is iðurmælt, one of the special effects explained in Ht (SnE 1999, 22). The repetition of heims/heimi/heims is also an echo of the prologue to the Gospel of John: erat lux vera quae inluminat omnem hominem venientem in mundum / in mundo erat et mundus per ipsum factus est et mundus eum non cognovit ‘That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into this world. He was in the world: and the world was made by him: and the world knew him not’ (John I.9-10). The Bb reading bjartr frá bjartri (l. 5) follows a similar pattern and echoes the lumen de lumine ‘light from light’ of the Credo; it is probably a better reading than Flat’s bert ‘clearly’. See NN §2051 for a discussion of the use of identical rhyme in this st. and elsewhere in skaldic poetry.

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heimi ‘world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

notes

[1-2] heims ... heimi ... heims: In dróttkvætt metre aðalhending is not appropriate in an odd-numbered l., hence Kock’s emendation of l. 1 (Skald) to þeirar húms í heimi. But exceptions were tolerated, and the rhyming pattern here is iðurmælt, one of the special effects explained in Ht (SnE 1999, 22). The repetition of heims/heimi/heims is also an echo of the prologue to the Gospel of John: erat lux vera quae inluminat omnem hominem venientem in mundum / in mundo erat et mundus per ipsum factus est et mundus eum non cognovit ‘That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into this world. He was in the world: and the world was made by him: and the world knew him not’ (John I.9-10). The Bb reading bjartr frá bjartri (l. 5) follows a similar pattern and echoes the lumen de lumine ‘light from light’ of the Credo; it is probably a better reading than Flat’s bert ‘clearly’. See NN §2051 for a discussion of the use of identical rhyme in this st. and elsewhere in skaldic poetry.

Close

heims ‘of the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

notes

[1-2] heims ... heimi ... heims: In dróttkvætt metre aðalhending is not appropriate in an odd-numbered l., hence Kock’s emendation of l. 1 (Skald) to þeirar húms í heimi. But exceptions were tolerated, and the rhyming pattern here is iðurmælt, one of the special effects explained in Ht (SnE 1999, 22). The repetition of heims/heimi/heims is also an echo of the prologue to the Gospel of John: erat lux vera quae inluminat omnem hominem venientem in mundum / in mundo erat et mundus per ipsum factus est et mundus eum non cognovit ‘That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into this world. He was in the world: and the world was made by him: and the world knew him not’ (John I.9-10). The Bb reading bjartr frá bjartri (l. 5) follows a similar pattern and echoes the lumen de lumine ‘light from light’ of the Credo; it is probably a better reading than Flat’s bert ‘clearly’. See NN §2051 for a discussion of the use of identical rhyme in this st. and elsewhere in skaldic poetry.

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meðan ‘while’

meðan (conj.): while

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vísi ‘the prince’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

kennings

vísi veðr-hallar,
‘the prince of the wind-hall, ’
   = God

the wind-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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veðr ‘of the wind’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

vísi veðr-hallar,
‘the prince of the wind-hall, ’
   = God

the wind-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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veðr ‘of the wind’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

vísi veðr-hallar,
‘the prince of the wind-hall, ’
   = God

the wind-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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kallaðisk ‘he called himself’

kalla (verb): call

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hallar ‘hall’

1. hǫll (noun f.; °hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir): hall < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

vísi veðr-hallar,
‘the prince of the wind-hall, ’
   = God

the wind-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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hallar ‘hall’

1. hǫll (noun f.; °hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir): hall < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

vísi veðr-hallar,
‘the prince of the wind-hall, ’
   = God

the wind-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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lét ‘caused himself’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

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bjartr ‘the bright’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright

[5] bjartr: so Bb, bert Flat

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frá ‘from’

frá (prep.): from

notes

[5, 8, 7] frá bjartri stjǫrnu flœðar ‘from the bright star of the sea’: A kenning-like circumloculation for the Virgin Mary, based on the Lat. phrase stella maris ‘star of the sea’, first appearing in the C9th hymn Ave maris stella (AH 51, 140). Although this epithet has the form of a kenning, such imitations of Lat. phrases have not been treated as kennings proper in this edn; for a discussion, see Introduction to this volume.

Close

bjartri ‘the bright’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright

notes

[5, 8, 7] frá bjartri stjǫrnu flœðar ‘from the bright star of the sea’: A kenning-like circumloculation for the Virgin Mary, based on the Lat. phrase stella maris ‘star of the sea’, first appearing in the C9th hymn Ave maris stella (AH 51, 140). Although this epithet has the form of a kenning, such imitations of Lat. phrases have not been treated as kennings proper in this edn; for a discussion, see Introduction to this volume.

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maðr ‘man’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

[6] maðr: mann Bb

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und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

notes

[6] und skýjaðri ‘under the cloud-rim’: Flat’s sky/heaven-kenning is the difficilior lectio but Bb’s und skýranni ‘beneath the cloud-hall [SKY/HEAVEN]’ together with the older nom. sg. form mannr (over Flat’s maðr, cf. ANG §§261 and 278.4b) provides aðalhending and is preferred by both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald). Neither Skj B nor Skald explain how the nom. sg. can be found after lét berask (ll. 5, 6).

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ský ‘the cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýjaðarr (noun m.)ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýrann (noun n.): cloud-hall

[6] skýjaðri: skýranni Bb

kennings

skýjaðri;
‘the cloud-rim; ’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the cloud-rim; → SKY/HEAVEN

notes

[6] und skýjaðri ‘under the cloud-rim’: Flat’s sky/heaven-kenning is the difficilior lectio but Bb’s und skýranni ‘beneath the cloud-hall [SKY/HEAVEN]’ together with the older nom. sg. form mannr (over Flat’s maðr, cf. ANG §§261 and 278.4b) provides aðalhending and is preferred by both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald). Neither Skj B nor Skald explain how the nom. sg. can be found after lét berask (ll. 5, 6).

Close

jaðri ‘rim’

jaðarr (noun m.; °-s, dat. jaðri; jaðrar): edge, border < skýjaðarr (noun m.)

[6] skýjaðri: skýranni Bb

kennings

skýjaðri;
‘the cloud-rim; ’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the cloud-rim; → SKY/HEAVEN

notes

[6] und skýjaðri ‘under the cloud-rim’: Flat’s sky/heaven-kenning is the difficilior lectio but Bb’s und skýranni ‘beneath the cloud-hall [SKY/HEAVEN]’ together with the older nom. sg. form mannr (over Flat’s maðr, cf. ANG §§261 and 278.4b) provides aðalhending and is preferred by both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald). Neither Skj B nor Skald explain how the nom. sg. can be found after lét berask (ll. 5, 6).

Close

stóð ‘proceeded’

standa (verb): stand

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flœðar ‘of the sea’

flœð (noun f.): flood, sea

notes

[5, 8, 7] frá bjartri stjǫrnu flœðar ‘from the bright star of the sea’: A kenning-like circumloculation for the Virgin Mary, based on the Lat. phrase stella maris ‘star of the sea’, first appearing in the C9th hymn Ave maris stella (AH 51, 140). Although this epithet has the form of a kenning, such imitations of Lat. phrases have not been treated as kennings proper in this edn; for a discussion, see Introduction to this volume.

Close

stjǫrnu ‘star’

stjarna (noun f.; °*-u; *-ur): star

[8] stjǫrnu: stjǫrnur Bb

notes

[5, 8, 7] frá bjartri stjǫrnu flœðar ‘from the bright star of the sea’: A kenning-like circumloculation for the Virgin Mary, based on the Lat. phrase stella maris ‘star of the sea’, first appearing in the C9th hymn Ave maris stella (AH 51, 140). Although this epithet has the form of a kenning, such imitations of Lat. phrases have not been treated as kennings proper in this edn; for a discussion, see Introduction to this volume.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Sts 1-2 of Geisl are linked as the first l. of st. 2 is dependent on the final l. of st. 1 (cf. Kuhn 1983, 210-12). — [1-4]: The theologically sophisticated reading of these ll. offered here depends on elaborate word-play, tmesis and syntactic fragmentation. By emending veðr (l. 4) to veðrs, Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) produces the following sense: Þeirar [sólar], es brá heims myrkrum í þeima heimi ok kallaðisk ljós heims, meðan vas vísi veðrs hallar ‘Of that [sun], which made an end of the world’s darkness in this world and is called the world’s light, while he was king of the storm’s hall [SKY/HEAVEN]’.

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