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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 3VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 3’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 9.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
234

Siðar ‘faith’

siðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -u): faith, morals

kennings

Ljósi sólar heilags siðar
‘The light of the sun of holy faith ’
   = Christ

the sun of holy faith → God
The light of GOD → Christ

notes

[1] siðar ‘faith’: This edn, with Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald; NN §2315), reads this as the gen. sg. of the noun siðr ‘religious practice, faith’ and construes: Ljósi sólar heilags siðar brá ‘The light of the sun of holy faith was extinguished’. Another possibility is to read the first word with a long ‘i’, síðar, the comp. form of the adv. síð, with the sense Síðar brá sólar ljósi ‘Later, the light of the sun [= Christ] was destroyed’. Síðar is then a reference to the preceding st., and its initial position in st. 3 may suggest that it is meant as a transition between the two. For this reading, see Chase 2005, 53 and 127. The long form, síðar, is unmetrical, however, as resolution is required in position one to avoid a hypermetrical l.

Close

Siðar ‘faith’

siðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -u): faith, morals

kennings

Ljósi sólar heilags siðar
‘The light of the sun of holy faith ’
   = Christ

the sun of holy faith → God
The light of GOD → Christ

notes

[1] siðar ‘faith’: This edn, with Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald; NN §2315), reads this as the gen. sg. of the noun siðr ‘religious practice, faith’ and construes: Ljósi sólar heilags siðar brá ‘The light of the sun of holy faith was extinguished’. Another possibility is to read the first word with a long ‘i’, síðar, the comp. form of the adv. síð, with the sense Síðar brá sólar ljósi ‘Later, the light of the sun [= Christ] was destroyed’. Síðar is then a reference to the preceding st., and its initial position in st. 3 may suggest that it is meant as a transition between the two. For this reading, see Chase 2005, 53 and 127. The long form, síðar, is unmetrical, however, as resolution is required in position one to avoid a hypermetrical l.

Close

heilags ‘of holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

kennings

Ljósi sólar heilags siðar
‘The light of the sun of holy faith ’
   = Christ

the sun of holy faith → God
The light of GOD → Christ
Close

heilags ‘of holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

kennings

Ljósi sólar heilags siðar
‘The light of the sun of holy faith ’
   = Christ

the sun of holy faith → God
The light of GOD → Christ
Close

sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

Ljósi sólar heilags siðar
‘The light of the sun of holy faith ’
   = Christ

the sun of holy faith → God
The light of GOD → Christ
Close

sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

Ljósi sólar heilags siðar
‘The light of the sun of holy faith ’
   = Christ

the sun of holy faith → God
The light of GOD → Christ
Close

setrs ‘abode’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode

[2] setrs: setr Bb

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] setrs ‘of the abode’: Flat’s reading requires the assumption of a noun (‘light’) for betra to qualify. Kock (NN §927; Skald) adopts Bb’s setr to give þat vas fyr betra setr ... ‘that was for [the purpose of] a better home ...’. — [2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

setrs ‘abode’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode

[2] setrs: setr Bb

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] setrs ‘of the abode’: Flat’s reading requires the assumption of a noun (‘light’) for betra to qualify. Kock (NN §927; Skald) adopts Bb’s setr to give þat vas fyr betra setr ... ‘that was for [the purpose of] a better home ...’. — [2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

setrs ‘abode’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode

[2] setrs: setr Bb

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] setrs ‘of the abode’: Flat’s reading requires the assumption of a noun (‘light’) for betra to qualify. Kock (NN §927; Skald) adopts Bb’s setr to give þat vas fyr betra setr ... ‘that was for [the purpose of] a better home ...’. — [2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

setrs ‘abode’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode

[2] setrs: setr Bb

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] setrs ‘of the abode’: Flat’s reading requires the assumption of a noun (‘light’) for betra to qualify. Kock (NN §927; Skald) adopts Bb’s setr to give þat vas fyr betra setr ... ‘that was for [the purpose of] a better home ...’. — [2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

betra ‘the better’

betri (adj. comp.; °superl. beztr/baztr; pos. „ góðr adj.): better, best

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

auð ‘of riches’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth < auðfinnandi (noun m.)

kennings

auðfinnǫndum
‘for finders of riches ’
   = MEN

for finders of riches → MEN
Close

finnǫndum ‘for finders’

finnandi (noun m.): bestower, finder < auðfinnandi (noun m.)

[3] ‑finnǫndum (‘‑finnandum’): so Bb, ‘‑finnendum’ Flat

kennings

auðfinnǫndum
‘for finders of riches ’
   = MEN

for finders of riches → MEN
Close

annars ‘of another’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

annars ‘of another’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

ómjós ‘of the not-small’

ómjór (adj.): [not-small]

[4] ómjós (‘o mioss’): so Bb, ‘o míors’ Flat

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

ómjós ‘of the not-small’

ómjór (adj.): [not-small]

[4] ómjós (‘o mioss’): so Bb, ‘o míors’ Flat

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

rǫðuls ‘sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

rǫðuls ‘sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls.
‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun. ’
   = God

the not-small abode of another sun. → SKY/HEAVEN
the better [light] of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2, 4, 3] betra ómjós setrs annars rǫðuls ‘the better [light] of the not-small abode of another sun’: This kenning is likely to refer to the new and more powerful light of the resurrected Christ by contrast with the kenning ljósi sólar heilags siðar ‘the light of the sun of holy faith’ in ll. 1, 4 where the reference is to Christ’s death at the Crucifixion. Alternatively, the phrase vas fyrir could mean ‘heralded’ and its object be understood simply as ‘the better light of heaven’ (so Skj B).

Close

ljósi ‘The light’

ljós (noun n.; °ljóss; -): light

[4] ljósi: so Bb, ‘liorsi’ Flat

kennings

Ljósi sólar heilags siðar
‘The light of the sun of holy faith ’
   = Christ

the sun of holy faith → God
The light of GOD → Christ
Close

réð ‘decided’

ráða (verb): advise, rule, interpret, decide

[5] réð: nam Bb

Close

efnask ‘to bring itself’

1. efna (verb; °-að-): initiate

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

Close

allra ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

Close

dauða ‘through death’

dauði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): death

Close

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