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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Har 7II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Stanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 157-8.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonStanzas about Haraldr Sigurðarson’s leiðangr
67

Haraldr ‘Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

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þeysti ‘rushed’

þeysa (verb): hasten

[1] þeysti: þrýstir H, Hr

notes

[1] þeysti ‘has rushed’: The minority variant þrýstir ‘presses’ would normally be either intransitive or would govern the dat. case, and therefore does not fit the present context.

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hraustla ‘boldly’

hraustla (adv.): bravely

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helming ‘troop’

helmingr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): unit, troop

notes

[2] helming ‘troop’: (a) The mss have helming, and this is the usual normalisation of the word (see also Valg Har 4/1). In retaining it, the present edn follows Kock, who prints helming in Skald and in NN §3089 argues for a rhyme of first consonant only, here [l], as also in l. 5 gramr : Þumla. (b) The form helfing may be suggested by the aðalhending on Elf-, and this is adopted in Skj B; see also ANG §237.2. Kock, however, describes helfing as non-occurring, while helfningr and helningr do occur, and Bjarni Aðalbjarnason in ÍF 28 prints helfning.

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Elfi ‘the Götaälv (Elfr)’

Elfi (noun f.): Götaälv (Elfr)

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náttar ‘overnights’

nátta (verb): pass the night; become night

[3] náttar: náttið H, Hr

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Nóregs ‘of Norway’

Noregr (noun m.): Norway

kennings

dróttinn Nóregs
‘the lord of Norway ’
   = Haraldr

the lord of Norway → Haraldr
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dróttinn ‘the lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

dróttinn Nóregs
‘the lord of Norway ’
   = Haraldr

the lord of Norway → Haraldr
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landamæri ‘the lands’ boundary’

landamæri (noun n.): [lands’ boundary]

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Gramr ‘The prince’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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Þumla ‘Þumli’

þumli (noun m.): þumli

notes

[5] Þumla ‘Þumli’: This seems to refer to the southern part of the island of Hisingen at the mouth of the Götaälv, but whether it is acc. sg. of a p. n. Þumli or acc. pl. of the ethnic name Þumlar is unclear. It is taken here as a p. n., equivalent to Tumlahede/Tumlehed (following Skj B and ÍF 28). The folk-name is slightly favoured in LP: Þumli.

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eindagaðr ‘is appointed’

eindaga (verb; °-að-): [is appointed]

[6] eindagaðr: eindagat F, H, ‘eindat’ E, eindagr Hr

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Sveini ‘for Sveinn’

2. Sveinn (noun m.): Sveinn

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hrafni ‘to the raven’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

[7] hrafni: hrǫfnum F, E, H, Hr

notes

[7] skyldr hrafni ‘owed to the raven’: This helps to define the ominous fundr ‘meeting’ as a military encounter which will provide food for the traditional birds of battle. The pl. variant hrǫfnum ‘ravens’ is also possible.

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skyldr ‘owed’

2. skyldr (adj.): obliged

[7] skyldr: skyld F, skuld E, skyldan H, Hr

notes

[7] skyldr hrafni ‘owed to the raven’: This helps to define the ominous fundr ‘meeting’ as a military encounter which will provide food for the traditional birds of battle. The pl. variant hrǫfnum ‘ravens’ is also possible.

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nema ‘unless’

2. nema (conj.): unless

[7] nema haldi: en halda F, E, halda H, Hr

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haldi ‘head’

halda (verb): hold, keep

[7] nema haldi: en halda F, E, halda H, Hr

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fundr ‘a meeting’

fundr (noun m.): discovery, meeting

[8] fundr: fund F, E, H, Hr

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Now with a favourable wind (cf. previous Context), Haraldr takes his fleet east to the Götaälv (Elfr).

[5-8]: Only and J2ˣ have the readings which produce the prose w. o. and translation above, and it is possible that they are the result of scribal improvement. The reading eindagat in F, H and perhaps E (though miswritten there) would agree with n. acc. sg. þing ‘assembly’ and hence perhaps have þing as its antecedent: þars eindagat Sveini ‘where an assembly has been appointed for Sveinn’, and in ll. 7-8 the F, E readings would give en Danir halda undan fund hans ‘but the Danes head away from a meeting with him’. However, halda undan ‘head away, escape’ does not elsewhere take an acc. object, and this analysis would leave skyldr hrafni ‘owed to the raven’ (and similarly skyldan hrǫfnum in H, Hr) unaccounted for.

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