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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Líkn 24VII

George S. Tate (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Líknarbraut 24’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 254-5.

Anonymous PoemsLíknarbraut
232425

Lands ‘of the earth’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

kennings

Guðblíðr gramr lands
‘The godly-tender king of the earth ’
   = God

The godly-tender king of the earth → God
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sté ‘ascended’

stíga (verb): step

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gramr ‘king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Guðblíðr gramr lands
‘The godly-tender king of the earth ’
   = God

The godly-tender king of the earth → God
Close

grundu ‘the ground’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

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guð ‘The godly’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God < guðblíðr (adj.)

kennings

Guðblíðr gramr lands
‘The godly-tender king of the earth ’
   = God

The godly-tender king of the earth → God
Close

blíðr ‘tender’

blíðr (adj.; °n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, happy < guðblíðr (adj.)

kennings

Guðblíðr gramr lands
‘The godly-tender king of the earth ’
   = God

The godly-tender king of the earth → God
Close

síðarr ‘later’

síðarr (adv.): later

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eykz ‘is increased’

1. auka (verb; °eykr; jók, jóku/juku): (str. intrans.) increase

[3] eykz: ‘eyksz’ B, ‘eyks ok’ 399a‑bˣ

notes

[3] eykz ‘is increased’: Following 399a-bˣ, Sveinbjörn Egilsson construes the final <z> of ms. ‘eyksz’ as Tironian nota, i.e. eyks ok ‘is also increased’.

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öllu ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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slíku ‘such’

2. slíkr (adj.): such

[3] slíku: ‘[...]ku’ B, 399a‑bˣ

notes

[3] slíku ‘such’: Proposed by Sveinbjörn Egilsson, the restoration has been accepted by all subsequent eds; the referent is unspecified.

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ór ‘our’

várr (pron.; °f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir): our

[4] ór: ‘vo᷎r’ B, 399a‑bˣ

notes

[4] ór ‘our’: Ms. ‘vo᷎r’ (vár); normalisation as variant ór allows rhyme with fjórum and vowel alliteration with eykz and öllu (l. 3).

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Fróns ‘of the earth’s’

2. frón (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

sikling* fróns tjalds
‘the king of the earth’s tent [to be] ’
   = God

the earth’s tent [to be] → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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Fróns ‘of the earth’s’

2. frón (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

sikling* fróns tjalds
‘the king of the earth’s tent [to be] ’
   = God

the earth’s tent [to be] → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

sikling* ‘the king’

siklingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

[5] sikling*: siklings B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

sikling* fróns tjalds
‘the king of the earth’s tent [to be] ’
   = God

the earth’s tent [to be] → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[5] sikling* ‘king’: Ms. siklings; Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s emendation has been accepted by all subsequent eds. Salvaging the ms. reading leaves one with a strained construction: sveit siklings fróns tjalds, hin er vill leita Krists í tignarveldi sínu, skal trúa mann ok guð sannan ‘the company of the king of the earth’s tent, which desires to seek Christ in his glorious power, must believe man and God true’.

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tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

[7] tjalds: ‘tialld[...]’ B, tjaldṣ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

sikling* fróns tjalds
‘the king of the earth’s tent [to be] ’
   = God

the earth’s tent [to be] → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

[7] tjalds: ‘tialld[...]’ B, tjaldṣ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

sikling* fróns tjalds
‘the king of the earth’s tent [to be] ’
   = God

the earth’s tent [to be] → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

trúa ‘believe’

2. trúa (verb): to believe (in)

notes

[8] trúa sannan mann ok guð ‘believe [him to be] true man and [true] God’: The adj. sannan ‘true’ can qualify both mann ‘man’ and guð ‘God’, or only one of the two nouns. Although in the Nicene Creed ‘true’ qualifies only God: Deum verum de deo vero ... et homo factus est ‘true God of true God ... and was made man’, the later Council of Chalcedon (451) assigns ‘true’ to Christ’s human nature as well. This position is reflected in a number of Lat. and ON texts. See e.g. the hymn ll. Ut deus verus / homo verus fieret ‘that he might become true God and true man’ (Mone 1853-5, I, 113/5), Mar (Unger 1871, 416) hann er ... sannr guð ok sannr maðr ‘he is ... true God and true man’, and Mdr 16/8 guð og mann borinn sannan ‘true God and man born [of your womb]’.

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mann ‘man’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

notes

[8] trúa sannan mann ok guð ‘believe [him to be] true man and [true] God’: The adj. sannan ‘true’ can qualify both mann ‘man’ and guð ‘God’, or only one of the two nouns. Although in the Nicene Creed ‘true’ qualifies only God: Deum verum de deo vero ... et homo factus est ‘true God of true God ... and was made man’, the later Council of Chalcedon (451) assigns ‘true’ to Christ’s human nature as well. This position is reflected in a number of Lat. and ON texts. See e.g. the hymn ll. Ut deus verus / homo verus fieret ‘that he might become true God and true man’ (Mone 1853-5, I, 113/5), Mar (Unger 1871, 416) hann er ... sannr guð ok sannr maðr ‘he is ... true God and true man’, and Mdr 16/8 guð og mann borinn sannan ‘true God and man born [of your womb]’.

Close

ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[8] trúa sannan mann ok guð ‘believe [him to be] true man and [true] God’: The adj. sannan ‘true’ can qualify both mann ‘man’ and guð ‘God’, or only one of the two nouns. Although in the Nicene Creed ‘true’ qualifies only God: Deum verum de deo vero ... et homo factus est ‘true God of true God ... and was made man’, the later Council of Chalcedon (451) assigns ‘true’ to Christ’s human nature as well. This position is reflected in a number of Lat. and ON texts. See e.g. the hymn ll. Ut deus verus / homo verus fieret ‘that he might become true God and true man’ (Mone 1853-5, I, 113/5), Mar (Unger 1871, 416) hann er ... sannr guð ok sannr maðr ‘he is ... true God and true man’, and Mdr 16/8 guð og mann borinn sannan ‘true God and man born [of your womb]’.

Close

guð ‘God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

notes

[8] trúa sannan mann ok guð ‘believe [him to be] true man and [true] God’: The adj. sannan ‘true’ can qualify both mann ‘man’ and guð ‘God’, or only one of the two nouns. Although in the Nicene Creed ‘true’ qualifies only God: Deum verum de deo vero ... et homo factus est ‘true God of true God ... and was made man’, the later Council of Chalcedon (451) assigns ‘true’ to Christ’s human nature as well. This position is reflected in a number of Lat. and ON texts. See e.g. the hymn ll. Ut deus verus / homo verus fieret ‘that he might become true God and true man’ (Mone 1853-5, I, 113/5), Mar (Unger 1871, 416) hann er ... sannr guð ok sannr maðr ‘he is ... true God and true man’, and Mdr 16/8 guð og mann borinn sannan ‘true God and man born [of your womb]’.

Close

sannan ‘true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true

notes

[8] trúa sannan mann ok guð ‘believe [him to be] true man and [true] God’: The adj. sannan ‘true’ can qualify both mann ‘man’ and guð ‘God’, or only one of the two nouns. Although in the Nicene Creed ‘true’ qualifies only God: Deum verum de deo vero ... et homo factus est ‘true God of true God ... and was made man’, the later Council of Chalcedon (451) assigns ‘true’ to Christ’s human nature as well. This position is reflected in a number of Lat. and ON texts. See e.g. the hymn ll. Ut deus verus / homo verus fieret ‘that he might become true God and true man’ (Mone 1853-5, I, 113/5), Mar (Unger 1871, 416) hann er ... sannr guð ok sannr maðr ‘he is ... true God and true man’, and Mdr 16/8 guð og mann borinn sannan ‘true God and man born [of your womb]’.

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