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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 4VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 4’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 76.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
345

eirar ‘clemency’

eir (noun f.): mercy

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hnossa ‘of the ornaments’

1. hnoss (noun f.; °; -ir): treasure

kennings

hæstr stillandi hnossa himins —
‘highest regulator of the ornaments of heaven — ’
   = God

the ornaments of heaven — → HEAVENLY BODIES
highest regulator of HEAVENLY BODIES → God
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hnossa ‘of the ornaments’

1. hnoss (noun f.; °; -ir): treasure

kennings

hæstr stillandi hnossa himins —
‘highest regulator of the ornaments of heaven — ’
   = God

the ornaments of heaven — → HEAVENLY BODIES
highest regulator of HEAVENLY BODIES → God
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himins ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

hæstr stillandi hnossa himins —
‘highest regulator of the ornaments of heaven — ’
   = God

the ornaments of heaven — → HEAVENLY BODIES
highest regulator of HEAVENLY BODIES → God
Close

himins ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

hæstr stillandi hnossa himins —
‘highest regulator of the ornaments of heaven — ’
   = God

the ornaments of heaven — → HEAVENLY BODIES
highest regulator of HEAVENLY BODIES → God
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stillandi ‘regulator’

stillandi (noun m.): [regulator]

kennings

hæstr stillandi hnossa himins —
‘highest regulator of the ornaments of heaven — ’
   = God

the ornaments of heaven — → HEAVENLY BODIES
highest regulator of HEAVENLY BODIES → God
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hæstr ‘highest’

hœgri (adj. comp.): higher, highest

[4] hæstr: ‘he᷎st’ all

kennings

hæstr stillandi hnossa himins —
‘highest regulator of the ornaments of heaven — ’
   = God

the ornaments of heaven — → HEAVENLY BODIES
highest regulator of HEAVENLY BODIES → God

notes

[4] hæstr ‘highest’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note in 444ˣ) suggests that B drops the final ‘r’ for the sake of euphony. He corrects to hæstr, m. sg. nom. of the sup. of hár (adj.) ‘high’. This emendation has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

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þótt ‘though’

þó (adv.): though

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óverðum ‘with unworthy’

óverðr (adj.): undeserving

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ítr ‘glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

kennings

ítr fylkir veðrhallar,
‘glorious king of the storm-hall, ’
   = God

the storm-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
glorious king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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fylkir ‘king’

fylkir (noun m.): leader

[6] fylkir: so 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘[...]lker’ B, (fý)lkir(?) BRydberg

kennings

ítr fylkir veðrhallar,
‘glorious king of the storm-hall, ’
   = God

the storm-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
glorious king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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lítir ‘you see’

líta (verb): look, see; appear

[6] lítir: líta B

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víst ‘surely’

1. víss (adj.): wise, certain(ly)

notes

[7] víst fyr vás ok lǫstu: Cf. Anon Líkn 12/7: víst fyr vára lǫstu ‘surely on account of our flaws’.

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fyr ‘because of’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[7] fyr: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘[...]r’ B

notes

[7] víst fyr vás ok lǫstu: Cf. Anon Líkn 12/7: víst fyr vára lǫstu ‘surely on account of our flaws’.

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vás ‘sinfulness’

vás (noun n.; °-s; dat. -um): hardship

[7] vás: ‘[...]os’ B, ‘vos’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘(v)os’(?) BRydberg, BFJ

notes

[7] víst fyr vás ok lǫstu: Cf. Anon Líkn 12/7: víst fyr vára lǫstu ‘surely on account of our flaws’.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[7] víst fyr vás ok lǫstu: Cf. Anon Líkn 12/7: víst fyr vára lǫstu ‘surely on account of our flaws’.

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lǫstu ‘flaws’

lǫstr (noun m.; °lastar, dat. lesti/lǫst; lestir, acc. lǫstu/lasta(Mar655XXXII 462Š)): fault, sin

notes

[7] víst fyr vás ok lǫstu: Cf. Anon Líkn 12/7: víst fyr vára lǫstu ‘surely on account of our flaws’.

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veðr ‘of the storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

ítr fylkir veðrhallar,
‘glorious king of the storm-hall, ’
   = God

the storm-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
glorious king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

veðr ‘of the storm’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

ítr fylkir veðrhallar,
‘glorious king of the storm-hall, ’
   = God

the storm-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
glorious king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hallar ‘hall’

1. hǫll (noun f.; °hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir): hall < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

ítr fylkir veðrhallar,
‘glorious king of the storm-hall, ’
   = God

the storm-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
glorious king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hallar ‘hall’

1. hǫll (noun f.; °hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir): hall < veðrhǫll (noun f.)

kennings

ítr fylkir veðrhallar,
‘glorious king of the storm-hall, ’
   = God

the storm-hall, → SKY/HEAVEN
glorious king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

kveðja ‘call’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[8] kveðja: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘kue[...]ia’ B, ‘kue(d)ia’(?) BRydberg, BFJ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[2-4]: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) understands hnossa hollrar miskunnar ‘ornaments of wholesome mercy’ as the object of the verb æsta, which takes the gen. of the thing requested (l. 4), and he translates din kendte miskundheds goder ‘the benefits of your well-known mercy’. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 252), anticipated by Kempff (1867, 24) takes hnossa ‘ornaments’ to be part of the God-kenning stillandi hnossa himins ‘regulator of the ornaments of heaven’. This recalls the God-kenning harri fagrgims hás hreggranns ‘king of the fair jewel of the high storm-house [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = God]’ in Leið 2/1-4. This arrangement is adopted by Kock (NN §2927) and Black (1971, 144). In NN §2803, Kock suggests the arrangement hollrar miskunnar ok hnossa eirar ‘of wholesome mercy and treasures of clemency’, which he rejects in §2927.

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