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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hardr 17II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Haraldsdrápa 17’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 279-80.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonHaraldsdrápa
1617

Bœnir ‘prayers’

bœn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): request, prayer

[1] Bœnir: bœn W, 2368ˣ, bænar A

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hefk ‘I raise up’

hafa (verb): have

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fyr ‘for’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[1] fyr (‘firir’): om. U, frá A

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beini ‘the dealer’

beinir (noun m.): [dealer]

kennings

beini falls bragna
‘the dealer of warriors’ deaths ’
   = WARRIOR

the dealer of warriors’ deaths → WARRIOR
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bragna ‘of warriors’’

bragnar (noun m.): men, warriors

kennings

beini falls bragna
‘the dealer of warriors’ deaths ’
   = WARRIOR

the dealer of warriors’ deaths → WARRIOR
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falls ‘deaths’

fall (noun n.; °-s; *-): fall

[2] falls: fjalls U

kennings

beini falls bragna
‘the dealer of warriors’ deaths ’
   = WARRIOR

the dealer of warriors’ deaths → WARRIOR
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við ‘to’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[2] við: um U

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snjallan ‘the wise’

snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold

[2] snjallan: ‘snja[…]a’ W

kennings

snjallan vǫrð Girkja ok Garða;
‘the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); ’
   = God

the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); → God
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Girkja ‘of the Greeks’

1. girkr (noun m.): Greek

[3] Girkja: so Tˣ, W, A, Grikkja R, U

kennings

snjallan vǫrð Girkja ok Garða;
‘the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); ’
   = God

the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); → God

notes

[3] vǫrð Girkja ok Garða ‘guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar)’: Garðar or Garðaríki is Novgorod (Hólmgarðr) and its territory in north-west Russia. The kenning thus refers appropriately to the areas where the young Haraldr distinguished himself (1035-45/46; see Bagge 1990). Johnsen (1969, 50) suggested that it might additionally allude to the fact that Haraldr was long at odds with the papacy, and followed an ecclesiastical policy which in some respects resembled that of Byzantium and Russia. The normalised spelling Girk- ‘Greeks’ is based on the evidence of skaldic rhymes, including the contemporary virk : Girkjum (Stúfr Stúfdr 2/4 and Note). The juxtaposition of Garða, normally a territorial name, with Girkja might suggest that the skald is here applying it to the inhabitants of Garðaríki (so Kuhn 1971, 15), a usage that might have arisen by analogy with pairs such as Svíaríki : Svíar (Sweden and its inhabitants) and Raumaríki : Raumar (Romerike and its inhabitants).

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vǫrð ‘guardian’

vǫrð (noun f.): woman

kennings

snjallan vǫrð Girkja ok Garða;
‘the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); ’
   = God

the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); → God

notes

[3] vǫrð Girkja ok Garða ‘guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar)’: Garðar or Garðaríki is Novgorod (Hólmgarðr) and its territory in north-west Russia. The kenning thus refers appropriately to the areas where the young Haraldr distinguished himself (1035-45/46; see Bagge 1990). Johnsen (1969, 50) suggested that it might additionally allude to the fact that Haraldr was long at odds with the papacy, and followed an ecclesiastical policy which in some respects resembled that of Byzantium and Russia. The normalised spelling Girk- ‘Greeks’ is based on the evidence of skaldic rhymes, including the contemporary virk : Girkjum (Stúfr Stúfdr 2/4 and Note). The juxtaposition of Garða, normally a territorial name, with Girkja might suggest that the skald is here applying it to the inhabitants of Garðaríki (so Kuhn 1971, 15), a usage that might have arisen by analogy with pairs such as Svíaríki : Svíar (Sweden and its inhabitants) and Raumaríki : Raumar (Romerike and its inhabitants).

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

snjallan vǫrð Girkja ok Garða;
‘the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); ’
   = God

the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); → God

notes

[3] vǫrð Girkja ok Garða ‘guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar)’: Garðar or Garðaríki is Novgorod (Hólmgarðr) and its territory in north-west Russia. The kenning thus refers appropriately to the areas where the young Haraldr distinguished himself (1035-45/46; see Bagge 1990). Johnsen (1969, 50) suggested that it might additionally allude to the fact that Haraldr was long at odds with the papacy, and followed an ecclesiastical policy which in some respects resembled that of Byzantium and Russia. The normalised spelling Girk- ‘Greeks’ is based on the evidence of skaldic rhymes, including the contemporary virk : Girkjum (Stúfr Stúfdr 2/4 and Note). The juxtaposition of Garða, normally a territorial name, with Girkja might suggest that the skald is here applying it to the inhabitants of Garðaríki (so Kuhn 1971, 15), a usage that might have arisen by analogy with pairs such as Svíaríki : Svíar (Sweden and its inhabitants) and Raumaríki : Raumar (Romerike and its inhabitants).

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Garða ‘of Russia (Garðar)’

Garðar (noun m.): Russia

kennings

snjallan vǫrð Girkja ok Garða;
‘the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); ’
   = God

the wise guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar); → God

notes

[3] vǫrð Girkja ok Garða ‘guardian of the Greeks and of Russia (Garðar)’: Garðar or Garðaríki is Novgorod (Hólmgarðr) and its territory in north-west Russia. The kenning thus refers appropriately to the areas where the young Haraldr distinguished himself (1035-45/46; see Bagge 1990). Johnsen (1969, 50) suggested that it might additionally allude to the fact that Haraldr was long at odds with the papacy, and followed an ecclesiastical policy which in some respects resembled that of Byzantium and Russia. The normalised spelling Girk- ‘Greeks’ is based on the evidence of skaldic rhymes, including the contemporary virk : Girkjum (Stúfr Stúfdr 2/4 and Note). The juxtaposition of Garða, normally a territorial name, with Girkja might suggest that the skald is here applying it to the inhabitants of Garðaríki (so Kuhn 1971, 15), a usage that might have arisen by analogy with pairs such as Svíaríki : Svíar (Sweden and its inhabitants) and Raumaríki : Raumar (Romerike and its inhabitants).

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gjǫf ‘for his gift’

gjǫf (noun f.): gift

notes

[4] svá launak jǫfri gjǫf ‘thus I repay the prince for his gift’: According to tradition, it was after receiving the gift of a gold-chased spear that Arnórr promised Haraldr that he would compose an erfidrápa ‘memorial drápa’ for him if he outlived him (e.g. Mork 1928-32, 118).

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launak ‘I repay’

launa (verb): reward

[4] launak: launat Tˣ

notes

[4] svá launak jǫfri gjǫf ‘thus I repay the prince for his gift’: According to tradition, it was after receiving the gift of a gold-chased spear that Arnórr promised Haraldr that he would compose an erfidrápa ‘memorial drápa’ for him if he outlived him (e.g. Mork 1928-32, 118).

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svá ‘thus’

svá (adv.): so, thus

[4] svá: ‘s[...]’ W

notes

[4] svá launak jǫfri gjǫf ‘thus I repay the prince for his gift’: According to tradition, it was after receiving the gift of a gold-chased spear that Arnórr promised Haraldr that he would compose an erfidrápa ‘memorial drápa’ for him if he outlived him (e.g. Mork 1928-32, 118).

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jǫfri ‘the prince’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

notes

[4] svá launak jǫfri gjǫf ‘thus I repay the prince for his gift’: According to tradition, it was after receiving the gift of a gold-chased spear that Arnórr promised Haraldr that he would compose an erfidrápa ‘memorial drápa’ for him if he outlived him (e.g. Mork 1928-32, 118).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Snorri quotes this among helmingar which illustrate kennings for Christ, and introduces it, Grikkja konungr, sem Arnórr kvað ‘King of the Greeks, as Arnórr said’. In LaufE, the st. is also given as an illustration of a kenning for Christ.

[1-2]: On prayers in Arnórr’s memorial poems, see Note to Arn Rǫgndr 3.

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