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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Pét 22VII

David McDougall (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Pétrsdrápa 22’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 814-15.

Anonymous PoemsPétrsdrápa
212223

sátu ‘sat’

sitja (verb): sit

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herra ‘Lord’

1. herra (noun m.; °herra; herrar): lord

notes

[2] herra nærri ‘Lord ... near’: Finnur (Skj B) has unattested nerri for nærri to create aðalhending with herra, but Kock (Skald) restores ms. nærri. According to Björn K. Þórólfsson 1925, xvii-xviii, [e:] very often rhymed with [æ]. Cf. ANG §§127.6, 442.2.

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nærri ‘near’

nærri (adj. comp.; °superl. nǽstr): near, nearer, next

notes

[2] herra nærri ‘Lord ... near’: Finnur (Skj B) has unattested nerri for nærri to create aðalhending with herra, but Kock (Skald) restores ms. nærri. According to Björn K. Þórólfsson 1925, xvii-xviii, [e:] very often rhymed with [æ]. Cf. ANG §§127.6, 442.2.

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spejar ‘inquires’

speja (verb): [inquires]

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

notes

[3] með gerðum ‘with their gear’: See NN §§1723, 878; Fritzner: gerð 9.

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gerðum ‘gear’

2. gerð (noun f.): gear

notes

[3] með gerðum ‘with their gear’: See NN §§1723, 878; Fritzner: gerð 9.

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spennir ‘the clasper’

spennir (noun m.): clasper

notes

[4] spennir tvennra harma ‘the clasper of two sorrows’: Both Kahle (1898, 110) and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) take the phrase as a kenning for Christ, but are at a loss to explain to what it refers. Kock (NN §1723) tentatively observes that the scriptural episode in question is preceded by a complaint concerning the iniquity of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Matt. XVI.6-12) and is followed by Christ’s prediction of his Passion and death (Matt. XVI.21), but admits that apart from this, the l. is ‘somewhat obscure’. One might perhaps seek to see in the phrase a veiled allusion to the two scriptural references to Christ weeping (at Luke XIX.41 and John XI.35), or a variation on the epithet vir dolorum ‘man of sorrows’ (Isa. LIII.3-4; cf., e.g., OED: sorrow sb. 2b the Man of Sorrows). The kenning-like phrase may, however, merely fit the immediate context, and perhaps plays on the etymological sense of dubitas ‘doubt’: Christ is called a ‘bearer of two worries’ here because he is in two minds / has his doubts about the beliefs of some of his followers. (Cf., perhaps, Fritzner: tvídrœgr, tvískiptr ‘uncertain’.)

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harma ‘sorrows’

1. harmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sorrow, grief

notes

[4] spennir tvennra harma ‘the clasper of two sorrows’: Both Kahle (1898, 110) and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) take the phrase as a kenning for Christ, but are at a loss to explain to what it refers. Kock (NN §1723) tentatively observes that the scriptural episode in question is preceded by a complaint concerning the iniquity of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Matt. XVI.6-12) and is followed by Christ’s prediction of his Passion and death (Matt. XVI.21), but admits that apart from this, the l. is ‘somewhat obscure’. One might perhaps seek to see in the phrase a veiled allusion to the two scriptural references to Christ weeping (at Luke XIX.41 and John XI.35), or a variation on the epithet vir dolorum ‘man of sorrows’ (Isa. LIII.3-4; cf., e.g., OED: sorrow sb. 2b the Man of Sorrows). The kenning-like phrase may, however, merely fit the immediate context, and perhaps plays on the etymological sense of dubitas ‘doubt’: Christ is called a ‘bearer of two worries’ here because he is in two minds / has his doubts about the beliefs of some of his followers. (Cf., perhaps, Fritzner: tvídrœgr, tvískiptr ‘uncertain’.)

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tvennra ‘of two’

tvennr (adj.): two

notes

[4] spennir tvennra harma ‘the clasper of two sorrows’: Both Kahle (1898, 110) and Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) take the phrase as a kenning for Christ, but are at a loss to explain to what it refers. Kock (NN §1723) tentatively observes that the scriptural episode in question is preceded by a complaint concerning the iniquity of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Matt. XVI.6-12) and is followed by Christ’s prediction of his Passion and death (Matt. XVI.21), but admits that apart from this, the l. is ‘somewhat obscure’. One might perhaps seek to see in the phrase a veiled allusion to the two scriptural references to Christ weeping (at Luke XIX.41 and John XI.35), or a variation on the epithet vir dolorum ‘man of sorrows’ (Isa. LIII.3-4; cf., e.g., OED: sorrow sb. 2b the Man of Sorrows). The kenning-like phrase may, however, merely fit the immediate context, and perhaps plays on the etymological sense of dubitas ‘doubt’: Christ is called a ‘bearer of two worries’ here because he is in two minds / has his doubts about the beliefs of some of his followers. (Cf., perhaps, Fritzner: tvídrœgr, tvískiptr ‘uncertain’.)

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hlýrna ‘of heavenly bodies’

hlýrn (noun n.): heavenly body, sky-light

kennings

heilagr deilir hlýrna;
‘the holy ruler of heavenly bodies; ’
   = God

the holy ruler of heavenly bodies; → God

notes

[6, 5] deilir hlýrna ‘ruler of heavenly bodies’: Cf. Meissner, 381.

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heilagr ‘the holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

kennings

heilagr deilir hlýrna;
‘the holy ruler of heavenly bodies; ’
   = God

the holy ruler of heavenly bodies; → God
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deilir ‘ruler’

deilir (noun m.): ruler, ordainer

kennings

heilagr deilir hlýrna;
‘the holy ruler of heavenly bodies; ’
   = God

the holy ruler of heavenly bodies; → God

notes

[6, 5] deilir hlýrna ‘ruler of heavenly bodies’: Cf. Meissner, 381.

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giefa ‘give’

gefa (verb): give

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Pétur ‘Peter’

Pétr (noun m.): Peter

notes

[8] Pétur ‘Peter’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) prints desyllabified -ur to gain an extra syllable (see Note to st. 4/2). Kock (NN §1712B; Skald) instead emends ms. ‘petr’ to Pétrus. Lat. forms of the name are frequently used in the ms. (‘petrus’ 26/3, 27/1, 53/8, and especially for oblique cases: ‘petri’ 4/8, 8/4; ‘petro’ 12/4, 54/7; ‘petrum’ 51/2). But the vernacular form of the name is also regularly found for nom. acc. sg. (cf. ‘petr’ 16/3, 19/3 [acc. sg.], 25/1; ‘petr’ 34/6). At st. 37/3 where, as here, the ms. has ‘petr’ when a bisyllabic form is required, Finnur again prints Pétur, while Kock substitutes Pétrus (see Note ad loc.).

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þorði ‘dared’

þora (verb): dare

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Cf. Matt. XVI.13-16; Mark VIII.27-9; Pétr 5/24-33. — [7-8]: Cf. Pétr 5/33: sæll Petrus svaraði einn fyrir alla ‘blessed Peter answered alone for all’.

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