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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hallvarðr Frag 1VIII (Frið 20)

Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Friðþjófs saga ins frœkna 20 (Hallvarðr, verses 1)’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 217.

Hallvarðrverses
12

Er ‘There is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] Er á skála: so 27ˣ, Er at skála 510, ‘[…] at skal’ 568ˣ

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á ‘from’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[1] Er á skála: so 27ˣ, Er at skála 510, ‘[…] at skal’ 568ˣ

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skála ‘the hall’

skáli (noun m.; °-a; -ar): hall

[1] Er á skála: so 27ˣ, Er at skála 510, ‘[…] at skal’ 568ˣ

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skjól ‘shelter’

skjól (noun n.; °-s; -): protection, shelter

[2] skjól: so 27ˣ, ‘skól’ 510, ‘skio’ 568ˣ

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at ‘’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

notes

[2] at sitja ‘to sit’: Ms. 510 has this reading, against the other mss’ at drekka ‘to drink’. Both are possible though sitja may fit better with vera in the sense ‘a place of refuge’ (l. 4).

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sitja ‘to sit’

sitja (verb): sit

[2] sitja: drekka 568ˣ, 27ˣ

notes

[2] at sitja ‘to sit’: Ms. 510 has this reading, against the other mss’ at drekka ‘to drink’. Both are possible though sitja may fit better with vera in the sense ‘a place of refuge’ (l. 4).

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vestrvíkingi ‘for the viking on a westward expedition’

vestrvíkingr (noun m.)

[3] vestrvíkingi: so 27ˣ, vestrvíkingar 510, ‘[…]stur vykingur’ 568ˣ

notes

[3] vestrvíkingi ‘for the viking on a westward expedition’: With LP: vestrvíkingr, assumed to refer to a man who is a viking (here Friðþjófr) rather than a viking expedition (vestrvíking, f.).

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sem ‘as a’

sem (conj.): as, which

[4] sem vera inni: so 568ˣ, 27ˣ, sem váru inni 510

notes

[4] sem vera inni ‘as a place of refuge inside’: The sense and syntax of this line is not clear. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), the only ed. to offer a translation of it, writes som der inde ‘like in that place’, but the role of vera is not then explicit. It is possible that vera is not here the inf. of the verb ‘be’ but the noun vera ‘existence, place of refuge’, as in Hávm 26/3 (NK 21) ef hann á sér í vá vero ‘if he [the foolish man] has a place of refuge for himself in the corner’. That is how it has been tentatively interpreted here.

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vera ‘place of refuge’

1. vera (noun f.; °-u): °(det at være et sted ɔ:) ophold, tilstedeværelse, opholdssted, tilholdssted; tilstand, tilværelse; tilflugtssted; velvære, gavn; væsen, beskaffenhed, natur

[4] sem vera inni: so 568ˣ, 27ˣ, sem váru inni 510

notes

[4] sem vera inni ‘as a place of refuge inside’: The sense and syntax of this line is not clear. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), the only ed. to offer a translation of it, writes som der inde ‘like in that place’, but the role of vera is not then explicit. It is possible that vera is not here the inf. of the verb ‘be’ but the noun vera ‘existence, place of refuge’, as in Hávm 26/3 (NK 21) ef hann á sér í vá vero ‘if he [the foolish man] has a place of refuge for himself in the corner’. That is how it has been tentatively interpreted here.

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inni ‘inside’

2. inni (adv.): in, inside, indoors

[4] sem vera inni: so 568ˣ, 27ˣ, sem váru inni 510

notes

[4] sem vera inni ‘as a place of refuge inside’: The sense and syntax of this line is not clear. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), the only ed. to offer a translation of it, writes som der inde ‘like in that place’, but the role of vera is not then explicit. It is possible that vera is not here the inf. of the verb ‘be’ but the noun vera ‘existence, place of refuge’, as in Hávm 26/3 (NK 21) ef hann á sér í vá vero ‘if he [the foolish man] has a place of refuge for himself in the corner’. That is how it has been tentatively interpreted here.

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Eru ‘are’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] Eru: þó eru 568ˣ, 27ˣ

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er ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[6] er: ‘ed’ 568ˣ

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hlunn ‘the roller’

hlunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): roller < hlunngoti (noun m.)

kennings

hlunngota
‘the roller-steed ’
   = SHIP

the roller-steed → SHIP

notes

[6] hlunngota ‘the roller-steed [SHIP]’: Cf. ÞjóðA Frag 1/6II.

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gota ‘steed’

goti (noun m.; °-a; -ar/-nar): person (or horse) from Gotland < hlunngoti (noun m.)

[6] ‑gota: so 568ˣ, 27ˣ, ‘‑geta’ 510

kennings

hlunngota
‘the roller-steed ’
   = SHIP

the roller-steed → SHIP

notes

[6] hlunngota ‘the roller-steed [SHIP]’: Cf. ÞjóðA Frag 1/6II.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[8] í drifaveðri ‘in the storm of sea-spray’: The same line is at Frið 18/4, Frið 21/4 and Ǫrv 86/4.

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drifaveðri ‘the storm of seaspray’

drifaveðr (noun n.)

notes

[8] í drifaveðri ‘in the storm of sea-spray’: The same line is at Frið 18/4, Frið 21/4 and Ǫrv 86/4.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Friðþjófr and his men find themselves in the Orkney islands, near the residence of Angantýr jarl. In the B recension only this place is said to be Effja, modern Evie on Mainland. The place is not named in the A recension. The jarl’s watchman is called Hallvarðr and he recites the following three stanzas (Frið 20, 21 and 22) in quick succession, telling what he sees.

This fornyrðislag stanza is only in the A recension mss. The first helmingr is difficult and the sense of l. 4 not entirely clear. Most eds, except for Wenz (Frið 1914, 18), emend l. 1 to Erat á skala ‘There is not in the hall’, but this is not necessary to achieve sense. The stanza contrasts the anticipated comfort of Friðþjófr and his men drinking in the shelter of the hall (where the speaker himself is) with the hard conditions of the men baling Elliði.

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