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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 3I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 97.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiHaraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)
234

hrafnar ‘ravens’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

notes

[1] hrafnar ‘ravens’: Though the next stanza refers to ‘the dark-feathered one’, here the valkyrie addresses more than one raven. The sg. nefi ‘beak’ (l. 3) and munni ‘mouth’ (l. 6) are accordingly translated as plurals here, though the sg. need not be regarded as illogical but rather as a matter of focus.

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dreyrgu ‘gory’

dreyrugr (adj.; °dreyrgan/dreyrugan; superl. dreyrgastr): bloody

[3] dreyrgu: corrected from ‘dræygu’ 302ˣ

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gengr ‘comes’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[6] gengr: gengr yðr FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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hygg ‘think’

2. hyggja (verb): think, consider

notes

[7] hygg ek yðr bjoggu ‘I think you lodged’: Lit. ‘I think you to have lodged’, an acc. with inf. construction introduced by a form of hyggja ‘think’, as also in sts 5/1 and 17/7; cf. 21/8. This is perhaps the only attestation of bjoggu, pret. inf. to búa (Sueti 1884, 24), surely a more original reading than finite bjogguð of the FskA transcripts, because it is more unusual. 

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ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[7] hygg ek yðr bjoggu ‘I think you lodged’: Lit. ‘I think you to have lodged’, an acc. with inf. construction introduced by a form of hyggja ‘think’, as also in sts 5/1 and 17/7; cf. 21/8. This is perhaps the only attestation of bjoggu, pret. inf. to búa (Sueti 1884, 24), surely a more original reading than finite bjogguð of the FskA transcripts, because it is more unusual. 

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yðr ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

[7] yðr: om. FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

notes

[7] hygg ek yðr bjoggu ‘I think you lodged’: Lit. ‘I think you to have lodged’, an acc. with inf. construction introduced by a form of hyggja ‘think’, as also in sts 5/1 and 17/7; cf. 21/8. This is perhaps the only attestation of bjoggu, pret. inf. to búa (Sueti 1884, 24), surely a more original reading than finite bjogguð of the FskA transcripts, because it is more unusual. 

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bjoggu ‘lodged’

2. búa (verb; °býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)): prepare, ready, live

[7] bjoggu: bjogguð FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

notes

[7] hygg ek yðr bjoggu ‘I think you lodged’: Lit. ‘I think you to have lodged’, an acc. with inf. construction introduced by a form of hyggja ‘think’, as also in sts 5/1 and 17/7; cf. 21/8. This is perhaps the only attestation of bjoggu, pret. inf. to búa (Sueti 1884, 24), surely a more original reading than finite bjogguð of the FskA transcripts, because it is more unusual. 

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vissuð ‘you knew’

1. vita (verb): know

[8] vissuð: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, vissu at 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

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i ‘corpses’

ná (noun f.): carrion

[8] i: nár 51ˣ, 302ˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, nær FskBˣ

notes

[8] i ‘corpses’: This slightly emended form appears in 761aˣ (on which, see Introduction). Jón Helgason (1946, 135) points out that the ‘nar’ of most of the mss could alternatively be emended to , to be construed as a generic (acc.) sg.

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liggja ‘were lying’

liggja (verb): lie

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As for st. 1.

The valkyrie introduced in sts 1-2 speaks.

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