skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Eskál Vell 4I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 287.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
345

Ullar ‘of the Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

alla ‘the entire’

allr (adj.): all

Close

ask ‘ship’s’

askr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): ash, ash-tree, ash-ship < asksǫgn (noun f.)askr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): ash, ash-tree, ash-ship < asksǫngr (noun m.)

[2] ask‑: ‘[...]sk‑’ B, ask 744ˣ

notes

[2] asksǫgn ‘ship’s crew’: Askr can denote several things made of ash, including a ship (LP: 1. askr B2).

Close

sǫgn ‘crew’

sǫgn (noun f.; °sagnar; sagnir): narrative, message; troop, men < asksǫgn (noun f.)

[2] ‑sǫgn: ‘‑song’ U

notes

[2] asksǫgn ‘ship’s crew’: Askr can denote several things made of ash, including a ship (LP: 1. askr B2).

Close

hvǫt ‘boldness’

hvǫt (noun f.; °; dat. -um): boldness

[2] hvǫt: ‘hot’ U

Close

byrgis ‘of the fence’

byrgi (noun n.; °-s; -, dat. byrgjum): refuge

[3] byrgis: birkis Tˣ, U

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

byrgis ‘of the fence’

byrgi (noun n.; °-s; -, dat. byrgjum): refuge

[3] byrgis: birkis Tˣ, U

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

byrgis ‘of the fence’

byrgi (noun n.; °-s; -, dat. byrgjum): refuge

[3] byrgis: birkis Tˣ, U

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

bǫðvar ‘of battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle

[3] bǫðvar: Boðnar B

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

bǫðvar ‘of battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle

[3] bǫðvar: Boðnar B

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

bǫðvar ‘of battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle

[3] bǫðvar: Boðnar B

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sorgar ‘of the sorrow’

sorg (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow, affliction

[3] sorgar: serkjar Tˣ, U, sorga B

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sorgar ‘of the sorrow’

sorg (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow, affliction

[3] sorgar: serkjar Tˣ, U, sorga B

kennings

Ullar sorgar byrgis bǫðvar,
‘of the Ullr of the sorrow of the fence of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the fence of battle, → SHIELD
the sorrow of the SHIELD → SWORD
the Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

bergs ‘of the rock’

berg (noun n.; °-s; -): rock, cliff

kennings

Grynnilô bergs dverga
‘The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs ’
   = POEM

The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs → POEM

notes

[4] grynnilô bergs dverga ‘the shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs [POEM]’: This is again a kenning for ‘poem’ (see Note to st. 1 [All]). (a) The interpretation given here follows from the reading of ms. B and avoids emendation. The basis for the kenning is the pattern ‘liquid of the dwarfs’ ( dverga). It is expanded by a verbal element grynni- from grynna(sk) ‘to shoal, become shallow’, a verbal derivative of ON grunnr ‘shallow’, which can be used impersonally (Fritzner: grynna 1). Hence grynnilô can be regarded as a variant of ModIcel. grunnfall, grunnsjór ‘wave that arises over a shoal’ (Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4, 276). Bergs refers to a skerry (flœðasker ‘skerry, a rock submerged at high tide’) on which the infuriated giant Suttungr maroons the dwarfs who had murdered his kinsmen (SnE 1998, I, 3) and from which they are only able to escape by relinquishing the mead of poetry to the giant. Compare LP: berg, where Finnur Jónsson points out that ModIcel. berg denotes a flat rock, as opposed to bjarg, which denotes a cliff. This seems to apply here as well, cf. also Marold (1994a, 473-4). (b) All other mss give ‘grymilá’, which requires emendation. Skj B and SnE 1998 follow a tentative suggestion by Konráð Gíslason (Nj 1875-8, II, 303) to emend ‘grymilá’ in mss R, Tˣ, U, W to geymilá ‘protective wave’. LP: geymilô explains the kenning bergs geymilô dverga as den i klipper opbevarede bølge, væske, der frelste dværgene, digterdrikken ‘the wave stored in the rocks, liquid that freed the dwarfs, mead of poetry’ (and cf. Krömmelbein 1983, 172). Apparently Finnur Jónsson assumes a dual function of geymi-, which he links both to the storage of the liquid and to the freeing of the dwarfs. Only the second function can be valid, however, because the dwarfs cannot be said to have stored the liquid in the rocks. (b) Kock (NN §390) interprets the mss’ ‘grymila’ as grymmilô ‘the fizzing liquid’, but no such verb as *grymma is attested in ON, and he is forced to rely on MHG and MLG evidence.

Close

grymi ‘’

Close

grynni ‘The shoal’

grynna (verb): [shoal] < grynnilá (noun f.)

[4] grynni‑: so B, ‘grymi‑’ R, Tˣ, W, U

kennings

Grynnilô bergs dverga
‘The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs ’
   = POEM

The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs → POEM

notes

[4] grynnilô bergs dverga ‘the shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs [POEM]’: This is again a kenning for ‘poem’ (see Note to st. 1 [All]). (a) The interpretation given here follows from the reading of ms. B and avoids emendation. The basis for the kenning is the pattern ‘liquid of the dwarfs’ ( dverga). It is expanded by a verbal element grynni- from grynna(sk) ‘to shoal, become shallow’, a verbal derivative of ON grunnr ‘shallow’, which can be used impersonally (Fritzner: grynna 1). Hence grynnilô can be regarded as a variant of ModIcel. grunnfall, grunnsjór ‘wave that arises over a shoal’ (Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4, 276). Bergs refers to a skerry (flœðasker ‘skerry, a rock submerged at high tide’) on which the infuriated giant Suttungr maroons the dwarfs who had murdered his kinsmen (SnE 1998, I, 3) and from which they are only able to escape by relinquishing the mead of poetry to the giant. Compare LP: berg, where Finnur Jónsson points out that ModIcel. berg denotes a flat rock, as opposed to bjarg, which denotes a cliff. This seems to apply here as well, cf. also Marold (1994a, 473-4). (b) All other mss give ‘grymilá’, which requires emendation. Skj B and SnE 1998 follow a tentative suggestion by Konráð Gíslason (Nj 1875-8, II, 303) to emend ‘grymilá’ in mss R, Tˣ, U, W to geymilá ‘protective wave’. LP: geymilô explains the kenning bergs geymilô dverga as den i klipper opbevarede bølge, væske, der frelste dværgene, digterdrikken ‘the wave stored in the rocks, liquid that freed the dwarfs, mead of poetry’ (and cf. Krömmelbein 1983, 172). Apparently Finnur Jónsson assumes a dual function of geymi-, which he links both to the storage of the liquid and to the freeing of the dwarfs. Only the second function can be valid, however, because the dwarfs cannot be said to have stored the liquid in the rocks. (b) Kock (NN §390) interprets the mss’ ‘grymila’ as grymmilô ‘the fizzing liquid’, but no such verb as *grymma is attested in ON, and he is forced to rely on MHG and MLG evidence.

Close

‘wave’

1. lá (noun f.; °; -r): surf < grynnilá (noun f.)1. lá (noun f.; °; -r): surf

kennings

Grynnilô bergs dverga
‘The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs ’
   = POEM

The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs → POEM

notes

[4] grynnilô bergs dverga ‘the shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs [POEM]’: This is again a kenning for ‘poem’ (see Note to st. 1 [All]). (a) The interpretation given here follows from the reading of ms. B and avoids emendation. The basis for the kenning is the pattern ‘liquid of the dwarfs’ ( dverga). It is expanded by a verbal element grynni- from grynna(sk) ‘to shoal, become shallow’, a verbal derivative of ON grunnr ‘shallow’, which can be used impersonally (Fritzner: grynna 1). Hence grynnilô can be regarded as a variant of ModIcel. grunnfall, grunnsjór ‘wave that arises over a shoal’ (Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4, 276). Bergs refers to a skerry (flœðasker ‘skerry, a rock submerged at high tide’) on which the infuriated giant Suttungr maroons the dwarfs who had murdered his kinsmen (SnE 1998, I, 3) and from which they are only able to escape by relinquishing the mead of poetry to the giant. Compare LP: berg, where Finnur Jónsson points out that ModIcel. berg denotes a flat rock, as opposed to bjarg, which denotes a cliff. This seems to apply here as well, cf. also Marold (1994a, 473-4). (b) All other mss give ‘grymilá’, which requires emendation. Skj B and SnE 1998 follow a tentative suggestion by Konráð Gíslason (Nj 1875-8, II, 303) to emend ‘grymilá’ in mss R, Tˣ, U, W to geymilá ‘protective wave’. LP: geymilô explains the kenning bergs geymilô dverga as den i klipper opbevarede bølge, væske, der frelste dværgene, digterdrikken ‘the wave stored in the rocks, liquid that freed the dwarfs, mead of poetry’ (and cf. Krömmelbein 1983, 172). Apparently Finnur Jónsson assumes a dual function of geymi-, which he links both to the storage of the liquid and to the freeing of the dwarfs. Only the second function can be valid, however, because the dwarfs cannot be said to have stored the liquid in the rocks. (b) Kock (NN §390) interprets the mss’ ‘grymila’ as grymmilô ‘the fizzing liquid’, but no such verb as *grymma is attested in ON, and he is forced to rely on MHG and MLG evidence.

Close

dverga ‘of dwarfs’

dvergr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): dwarf

kennings

Grynnilô bergs dverga
‘The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs ’
   = POEM

The shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs → POEM

notes

[4] grynnilô bergs dverga ‘the shoal-wave of the rock of dwarfs [POEM]’: This is again a kenning for ‘poem’ (see Note to st. 1 [All]). (a) The interpretation given here follows from the reading of ms. B and avoids emendation. The basis for the kenning is the pattern ‘liquid of the dwarfs’ ( dverga). It is expanded by a verbal element grynni- from grynna(sk) ‘to shoal, become shallow’, a verbal derivative of ON grunnr ‘shallow’, which can be used impersonally (Fritzner: grynna 1). Hence grynnilô can be regarded as a variant of ModIcel. grunnfall, grunnsjór ‘wave that arises over a shoal’ (Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4, 276). Bergs refers to a skerry (flœðasker ‘skerry, a rock submerged at high tide’) on which the infuriated giant Suttungr maroons the dwarfs who had murdered his kinsmen (SnE 1998, I, 3) and from which they are only able to escape by relinquishing the mead of poetry to the giant. Compare LP: berg, where Finnur Jónsson points out that ModIcel. berg denotes a flat rock, as opposed to bjarg, which denotes a cliff. This seems to apply here as well, cf. also Marold (1994a, 473-4). (b) All other mss give ‘grymilá’, which requires emendation. Skj B and SnE 1998 follow a tentative suggestion by Konráð Gíslason (Nj 1875-8, II, 303) to emend ‘grymilá’ in mss R, Tˣ, U, W to geymilá ‘protective wave’. LP: geymilô explains the kenning bergs geymilô dverga as den i klipper opbevarede bølge, væske, der frelste dværgene, digterdrikken ‘the wave stored in the rocks, liquid that freed the dwarfs, mead of poetry’ (and cf. Krömmelbein 1983, 172). Apparently Finnur Jónsson assumes a dual function of geymi-, which he links both to the storage of the liquid and to the freeing of the dwarfs. Only the second function can be valid, however, because the dwarfs cannot be said to have stored the liquid in the rocks. (b) Kock (NN §390) interprets the mss’ ‘grymila’ as grymmilô ‘the fizzing liquid’, but no such verb as *grymma is attested in ON, and he is forced to rely on MHG and MLG evidence.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Context to st. 1.

Ms. 744ˣ, a copy of B by Jón Ólafsson, has been used selectively here and in sts 5, 35 and 37 to supply readings (whether these match or differ from the main text) where B is not legible.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.