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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon (TGT) 12III

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Stanzas from the Third Grammatical Treatise 12’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 545.

Anonymous LausavísurStanzas from the Third Grammatical Treatise
111213

Hring ‘The ring’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringtælir (noun m.): [ring-trickster]

kennings

Hringtælir
‘The ring-trickster ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

The ring-trickster → GENEROUS MAN
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tælir ‘trickster’

tælir (noun m.): [beguiler] < hringtælir (noun m.): [ring-trickster]

kennings

Hringtælir
‘The ring-trickster ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

The ring-trickster → GENEROUS MAN
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hálu ‘troll-woman’

hála (noun f.): ogress, troll-woman

kennings

dýra hálu hlýrsólar;
‘a precious troll-woman of the prow-sun; ’
   = AXE

the prow-sun; → SHIELD
a precious troll-woman of the SHIELD → AXE
Close

hlýr ‘of the prow’

2. hlýr (noun n.; °-s; -): cheek, bow < hlýrsól (noun f.): [prow-sun]

kennings

dýra hálu hlýrsólar;
‘a precious troll-woman of the prow-sun; ’
   = AXE

the prow-sun; → SHIELD
a precious troll-woman of the SHIELD → AXE
Close

hlýr ‘of the prow’

2. hlýr (noun n.; °-s; -): cheek, bow < hlýrsól (noun f.): [prow-sun]

kennings

dýra hálu hlýrsólar;
‘a precious troll-woman of the prow-sun; ’
   = AXE

the prow-sun; → SHIELD
a precious troll-woman of the SHIELD → AXE
Close

sólar ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < hlýrsól (noun f.): [prow-sun]

kennings

dýra hálu hlýrsólar;
‘a precious troll-woman of the prow-sun; ’
   = AXE

the prow-sun; → SHIELD
a precious troll-woman of the SHIELD → AXE
Close

sólar ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < hlýrsól (noun f.): [prow-sun]

kennings

dýra hálu hlýrsólar;
‘a precious troll-woman of the prow-sun; ’
   = AXE

the prow-sun; → SHIELD
a precious troll-woman of the SHIELD → AXE
Close

dýra ‘a precious’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

kennings

dýra hálu hlýrsólar;
‘a precious troll-woman of the prow-sun; ’
   = AXE

the prow-sun; → SHIELD
a precious troll-woman of the SHIELD → AXE
Close

Hrund ‘the Hrund’

Hrund (noun f.): Runde, Hrund, valkyrie

kennings

Hrund hræpolls,
‘the Hrund of the carrion-pool, ’
   = AXE

the carrion-pool, → BLOOD
the Hrund of the BLOOD → AXE
Close

til ‘into’

til (prep.): to

Close

hræ ‘of the carrion’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræpollr (noun m.): [carrion-pool]

kennings

Hrund hræpolls,
‘the Hrund of the carrion-pool, ’
   = AXE

the carrion-pool, → BLOOD
the Hrund of the BLOOD → AXE
Close

hræ ‘of the carrion’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræpollr (noun m.): [carrion-pool]

kennings

Hrund hræpolls,
‘the Hrund of the carrion-pool, ’
   = AXE

the carrion-pool, → BLOOD
the Hrund of the BLOOD → AXE
Close

polls ‘pool’

pollr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): pool < hræpollr (noun m.): [carrion-pool]

kennings

Hrund hræpolls,
‘the Hrund of the carrion-pool, ’
   = AXE

the carrion-pool, → BLOOD
the Hrund of the BLOOD → AXE
Close

polls ‘pool’

pollr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): pool < hræpollr (noun m.): [carrion-pool]

kennings

Hrund hræpolls,
‘the Hrund of the carrion-pool, ’
   = AXE

the carrion-pool, → BLOOD
the Hrund of the BLOOD → AXE
Close

golli ‘with gold’

gull (noun n.): gold

Close

sút ‘the sorrow’

1. sút (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow

[5] sút: so W, sótt A

kennings

sút hattar Herjans …
‘the sorrow of Herjann’s hat … ’
   = WEAPON

Herjann’s hat … → HELMET
the sorrow of the HELMET → WEAPON

notes

[5] sút ‘the sorrow’: So W. The A variant, sótt ‘illness, distress’, could conceivably also be construed as a base-word in a kenning for ‘weapon’, although the word is not otherwise attested as a base-word in weapon-kennings (see LP: sóttMeissner 156). — [5] sút hattar Herjans ‘the sorrow of Herjann’s <= Óðinn’s> hat [HELMET > WEAPON]’: This kenning could just as well refer to a sword as to an axe (see Introduction to ESk Øxfl). With this kenning, the imagery of the stanza is changed, resulting in finngálknat or nykrat (see SnE 2007, 7).

Close

sút ‘the sorrow’

1. sút (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow

[5] sút: so W, sótt A

kennings

sút hattar Herjans …
‘the sorrow of Herjann’s hat … ’
   = WEAPON

Herjann’s hat … → HELMET
the sorrow of the HELMET → WEAPON

notes

[5] sút ‘the sorrow’: So W. The A variant, sótt ‘illness, distress’, could conceivably also be construed as a base-word in a kenning for ‘weapon’, although the word is not otherwise attested as a base-word in weapon-kennings (see LP: sóttMeissner 156). — [5] sút hattar Herjans ‘the sorrow of Herjann’s <= Óðinn’s> hat [HELMET > WEAPON]’: This kenning could just as well refer to a sword as to an axe (see Introduction to ESk Øxfl). With this kenning, the imagery of the stanza is changed, resulting in finngálknat or nykrat (see SnE 2007, 7).

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

notes

[5] þás ‘when’: As Finnur Jónsson (TGT 1927, 98) points out, this could also be a rel. construction, f. acc. sg. ‘which’, referring back to hálu ‘troll-woman’ (l. 1).

Close

Herjans ‘of Herjann’s’

2. Herjann (noun m.): Herjann

kennings

sút hattar Herjans …
‘the sorrow of Herjann’s hat … ’
   = WEAPON

Herjann’s hat … → HELMET
the sorrow of the HELMET → WEAPON

notes

[5] sút hattar Herjans ‘the sorrow of Herjann’s <= Óðinn’s> hat [HELMET > WEAPON]’: This kenning could just as well refer to a sword as to an axe (see Introduction to ESk Øxfl). With this kenning, the imagery of the stanza is changed, resulting in finngálknat or nykrat (see SnE 2007, 7).

Close

Herjans ‘of Herjann’s’

2. Herjann (noun m.): Herjann

kennings

sút hattar Herjans …
‘the sorrow of Herjann’s hat … ’
   = WEAPON

Herjann’s hat … → HELMET
the sorrow of the HELMET → WEAPON

notes

[5] sút hattar Herjans ‘the sorrow of Herjann’s <= Óðinn’s> hat [HELMET > WEAPON]’: This kenning could just as well refer to a sword as to an axe (see Introduction to ESk Øxfl). With this kenning, the imagery of the stanza is changed, resulting in finngálknat or nykrat (see SnE 2007, 7).

Close

hattar ‘hat’

1. hǫttr (noun m.): hood, hat

kennings

sút hattar Herjans …
‘the sorrow of Herjann’s hat … ’
   = WEAPON

Herjann’s hat … → HELMET
the sorrow of the HELMET → WEAPON

notes

[5] sút hattar Herjans ‘the sorrow of Herjann’s <= Óðinn’s> hat [HELMET > WEAPON]’: This kenning could just as well refer to a sword as to an axe (see Introduction to ESk Øxfl). With this kenning, the imagery of the stanza is changed, resulting in finngálknat or nykrat (see SnE 2007, 7).

Close

hattar ‘hat’

1. hǫttr (noun m.): hood, hat

kennings

sút hattar Herjans …
‘the sorrow of Herjann’s hat … ’
   = WEAPON

Herjann’s hat … → HELMET
the sorrow of the HELMET → WEAPON

notes

[5] sút hattar Herjans ‘the sorrow of Herjann’s <= Óðinn’s> hat [HELMET > WEAPON]’: This kenning could just as well refer to a sword as to an axe (see Introduction to ESk Øxfl). With this kenning, the imagery of the stanza is changed, resulting in finngálknat or nykrat (see SnE 2007, 7).

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The axe-kennings hála hlýrsólar ‘the troll-woman of the prow-sun’, Hrund hræpolls ‘the Hrund of the carrion-pool’ and sút hattar Herjans ‘sorrow of Herjann’s hat’ are given in TGT as examples of nykrat or finngálknat ‘monstrosity’ (cacemphaton), i.e. a change of metaphors resulting in inconsistent imagery.

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