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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 35VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 35’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 35-6.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
343536

hafa ‘have’

hafa (verb): have

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sunnr ‘in the south’

sunnr (adv.): south

[2] sunnr: suðr Bb

notes

[2] sunnr ‘south’: An early form of suðr (ANG §261), used here for the sake of the aðalhending with kunnir (and liðhenda with Sknungum).

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Skônungum ‘to the Skônungar’

Skánungr (noun m.; °; -ar): one of the Skánungar

[2] Skônungum: Skneyjum Bb

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um ‘on’

1. um (prep.): about, around

[3] um: at Bb

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Óláfs ‘Óláfr’s’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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al ‘all’

al- ((prefix)): very < almildr (adj.): all-generous

[4] almilds: ómildr Bb

notes

[4] almilds (m. gen. sg.) ‘all-generous’: Cf. ‘sa mildi konungr’ (HómNo, 115); ‘sa milldr konongr’ (ÓHLeg 1982, 214).

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milds ‘generous’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous < almildr (adj.): all-generous

[4] almilds: ómildr Bb

notes

[4] almilds (m. gen. sg.) ‘all-generous’: Cf. ‘sa mildi konungr’ (HómNo, 115); ‘sa milldr konongr’ (ÓHLeg 1982, 214).

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þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

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þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

notes

[7-8] þá varð grjón at grônu grjóti ‘then the dough had become a grey stone’: Cf. brauð þat allt varð at griote ‘all that bread turned to stone’ HómNo, 115, ÓHLeg 1982, 214.

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varð ‘had become’

1. verða (verb): become, be

notes

[7-8] þá varð grjón at grônu grjóti ‘then the dough had become a grey stone’: Cf. brauð þat allt varð at griote ‘all that bread turned to stone’ HómNo, 115, ÓHLeg 1982, 214.

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grjón ‘the dough’

grjón (noun n.; °-s; -): dough, groats

notes

[7-8] þá varð grjón at grônu grjóti ‘then the dough had become a grey stone’: Cf. brauð þat allt varð at griote ‘all that bread turned to stone’ HómNo, 115, ÓHLeg 1982, 214.

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at ‘’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[7-8] þá varð grjón at grônu grjóti ‘then the dough had become a grey stone’: Cf. brauð þat allt varð at griote ‘all that bread turned to stone’ HómNo, 115, ÓHLeg 1982, 214.

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grônu ‘a grey’

gránn (adj.): grey

[7] grônu: ‘grænu’ Bb

notes

[7-8] þá varð grjón at grônu grjóti ‘then the dough had become a grey stone’: Cf. brauð þat allt varð at griote ‘all that bread turned to stone’ HómNo, 115, ÓHLeg 1982, 214.

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grjóti ‘stone’

grjót (noun n.): rock, stone

notes

[7-8] þá varð grjón at grônu grjóti ‘then the dough had become a grey stone’: Cf. brauð þat allt varð at griote ‘all that bread turned to stone’ HómNo, 115, ÓHLeg 1982, 214.

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danskrar ‘of the Danish’

danskr (adj.): Danish

[8] danskrar: danskar Bb

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snótar ‘woman’

snót (noun f.; °; -ir): woman

[8] snótar: so Bb, ‘[...]n[...]’ Flat

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Sts 35-6 narrate the miracle of a woman (from Trøndelag according to ÓHLeg 1982, 214-15), forced by her master, an evil Danish count, to bake bread on S. Óláfr’s feast day. (Punishment for working on a saint’s feast day is a common hagiographical motif.) She prayed to S. Óláfr for vengeance, and the loaves were turned to stone in the oven, while the count was blinded. This narrative, which comes from the legendary tradition, follows the Gutthormr miracle in a number of sources (e.g. ÓHLeg 1982, 214; Passio Olaui in Metcalfe 1881, 78-9; HómNo, 115; Hkr, ÍF 28, 137-8; ÓH 1941, 636-7), both accounting for relics that were to be seen in Trondheim cathedral, the silver cross and three rocks kept at Óláfr’s shrine until the Reformation. Many Icel. churches also displayed stones as a reminder of the story: ‘Óláfssteinar’ were kept in the churchyard at Þingvellir as late as 1873 (DI I, 1264-5; see further Chase 2005, 39 and nn. 110 and 111). The miracle of the loaves is also said to account for the fact that the feast of S. Óláfr was observed throughout Denmark (cf. st. 36).

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