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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Óðins 5III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 743.

Anonymous ÞulurÓðins nǫfn
456

Hroptr, Herblindi         ok Herjafǫðr,
Hvatmóðr, Hléfreyr,         Hveðrungr, Þriði,
Gǫllungr, Bileygr         ok Geirǫlnir,
Váfuðr, Valfǫðr,         Vingnir, Rǫgnir.

Hroptr, Herblindi ok Herjafǫðr, Hvatmóðr, Hléfreyr, Hveðrungr, Þriði, Gǫllungr, Bileygr ok Geirǫlnir, Váfuðr, Valfǫðr, Vingnir, Rǫgnir.

Hroptr, Herblindi and Herjafǫðr, Hvatmóðr, Hléfreyr, Hveðrungr, Þriði, Gǫllungr, Bileygr and Geirǫlnir, Váfuðr, Valfǫðr, Vingnir, Rǫgnir.

Mss: A(18r), B(8r), 744ˣ(60v) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Hroptr: so B, Þroptr A;    Her‑: hel‑ B    [2] Herja‑: herjans‑ B    [5] ‑eygr: ‘‑[…]ygr’ B, ‘‑eýgr’ 744ˣ    [7] Váfuðr (‘vo᷎fudr’): so B, váfǫðr A;    Valfǫðr: om. B    [8] Vingnir: vingnir ok B

Editions: Skj AI, 681, Skj BI, 673, Skald I, 337; SnE 1848-87, II, 472, 555-6.

Notes: [1] Hroptr: So B. This reading, rather than the A variant ‘Þroptr’ (a hap. leg.), is preferable for metrical reasons (alliteration), although Hroptr occurs here for the second time (see Note to st. 2/7). The LaufE mss have (normalised) Þroptr. Þroptr (or Þroftr) could well be a result of confusion of the Óðinn-names Hroptr and Þróttr lit. ‘strength’ (cf. ÍO: Þroftur). Both of those names occur in skaldic kennings, but Þróttr is not mentioned in the present list. — [1] Herblindi: The name either means ‘one who blinds sby in battle’ or ‘one who makes warriors blind’ (LP: Herblindi). The first element of the cpd is either her- ‘battle’ or herr m. ‘army, people’, and the second a weak form of the adj. blindr ‘blind’. Cf. Yng (ch. 6, ÍF 26, 17), where it is said that Óðinn kunni svá gera, at í orrostu urðu óvinir hans blindir eða daufir eða óttafullir ‘was able to cause his enemies to become blind or deaf or fearful in battle’. See also Tvíblindi and Gunnblindi (sts 4/8, 8/2). In this form the name is attested only in A, while B, the LaufE mss and other sources (i.e. Grí 46/6 and Gylf, SnE 2005, 21) have Helblindi. Falk (1924, 16) suggests that it may have resulted from confusion with the name of Loki’s brother, Helblindi (cf. SnE 2005, 26). The first part of that cpd, Hel, is the name of Loki’s daughter, who presided over the realm of the dead in Old Norse myth. — [2] Herjafǫðr: So A and the LaufE mss. Lit. ‘father of hosts’. The first part of the cpd is gen. pl. of herr m. ‘men, army’, hence like many of his names this heiti characterises Óðinn as a war-god. The name is known from eddic poems (e.g. Vsp 43/4, Vafþr 2/2, Grí 19/3, 25/2, 26/2). According to Falk (1924, 17), the B variant Herjansfǫðr may be influenced by Herjans fǫður (acc.) in the Flat redaction of Hyndl 2/1 (NK 288), while Strandberg (2008, 108-9) also entertains the possibility that the first part of that cpd may be identical with the Óðinn-name Herjann (see st. 2/5 above). Cf. also Herfǫðr, Óðinn’s name in Vsp 29/1, Aldafǫðr (see Note to st. 1/4 above) and such Óðinn-heiti as Hertýr (Eskál Vell 5/2I) and Hergautr (Bragi Rdr 5/8) — [3] Hvatmóðr: Lit. ‘bold-hearted one’, from the adj. hvatr ‘bold, quick’ and móðr m. ‘mood, soul, anger, rage’. In Old Norse, this cpd is not found elsewhere. Perhaps originally the name of a legendary hero (cf. the Old English m. pers. n. Hwætmōd; so Falk 1924, 19). — [3] Hléfreyr: The name means either ‘lee-Freyr’ or ‘famous-Freyr’ and is otherwise unattested. See Note to Hléfǫðr (st. 4/1). — [4] Hveðrungr: The name of a giant, apparently another name for Loki (see Note to Þul Jǫtna I 1/7). As an Óðinn-heiti the name is attested only in the present þula and in later rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: Hveðrungr). Falk (1924, 19) suggests that it was assigned to Óðinn owing to a misunderstanding of the kenning mær Hveðrungs ‘Hveðrungr’s girl’ in Þjóð Yt 24/3I, which was interpreted as a kenning for ‘valkyrie’ rather than as a circumlocution for ‘Hel’ (Hveðrungr, i.e. Loki, was the father of Hel). Cf. also the name of Loki’s brother, Helblindi, given as a variant of Herblindi above (l. 1). — [4] Þriði: Lit. ‘the third’. According to Snorri, this was the third of the three kings, Hár, Jafnhár and Þriði, the informants of Gylfi in Gylf, and the one occupying the highest throne (SnE 2005, 8). This Óðinn-heiti is frequently used in kennings and is mentioned in Grí 46/4. In Þáttr Hálfdanar svarta, the name is explained as originating from a confusion with the Christian Trinity (Flat 1860-8, I, 564): Þride af þui at þeirhǫfðu þa spurnn af þrenningunne ok sneru þui j uillu ‘Third because by then they … had heard of the Trinity and altered it falsely’. Grimm (1875-8, I, 134 n. 3, III, 61) compares this name to the name of Zeus, Τρίτος, and interprets it as the third name in the trilogy Búri, Burr, Óðinn, just as Zeus is the third in the trilogy Uranos, Kronos, Zevs (cf. Falk 1924, 30). — [5] Gǫllungr: The name means ‘clanging one’. See also Gǫllorr and Gǫllnir (sts 1/7, 3/7). As a name for Óðinn, Gǫllungr does not occur elsewhere, but it is also a heiti for ‘hawk’ (Þul Hauks 1/7).  — [5] Bileygr: Lit. ‘one with unsteady eyes’, i.e. ‘weak-sighted’ (according to CVC, bil in poetic compounds means ‘failure, fear, giving way’). The second element is the adj. eygr ‘with eyes of a certain kind’. This name makes a pair with Báleygr ‘fiery-eyed one’ (st. 6/3 below). Cf. the two brothers Bolwisus and Bilwisus (a synonym of Bileygr) in Saxo (Saxo 2005, I, 7, 7, 11, pp. 472-3). These were King Sigar’s counsellors, one good and one evil, and they have been regarded as two different representations of Óðinn. Óðinn appears among humans as one-eyed (einsýnn) and weak-sighted (augdapr), but as fiery-eyed when in the god’s shape (Falk 1924, 4). Other than in the present þula, the name Bileygr occurs only in Grí 47/4. — [6] Geirǫlnir: Perhaps ‘spear-feeder’, from geirr m. ‘spear’ and the strong verb ala ‘nourish, feed’. Falk (1924, 13), however, suggests that the name could have developed from *Geirǫnlir (with metathesis), which in turn may have been derived from the name of a valkyrie, Geirǫnul, where ‑ǫnul is a nominal derivation from the verb *ana (cf. ModIcel. ana ‘rush on’), hence lit. ‘one rushing on with a spear’. This is also a heiti for ‘goat’ (see Note to Þul Hafrs 1/2), but it is not otherwise used in poetry. — [7] Váfuðr: So B. This heiti may mean ‘swinging one’ (an agent noun from the weak verb váfa ‘swing’), and if so, the name possibly alludes to the same myth as Geiguðr in st. 3/7 above (cf. Hávm 157), although Finnur Jónsson interprets the name as ‘wanderer’ (LP: Vôfuðr). In this form the name is also recorded in the list of Óðinn-heiti in Grí 54/5 and in Gylf (SnE 2005, 22). Váfuðr is otherwise attested as a heiti for ‘wind’ (Alv 20/2; see Note to Þul Veðra 1/1). The A variant (normalised) Váfǫðr (so also the LaufE mss) occurs in the Hb version of Vsp 1/5 (NK 1), where it replaces Valfǫðr, the next name in the present stanza. — [7] Valfǫðr: So A and the LaufE mss; omitted in B. Lit. ‘father of the slain’. The first element of the cpd is derived from valr m. or val n. ‘the slain, fallen warriors’. For the second element ‑fǫðr, see Note to st. 1/4 above. The name is explained as follows in Gylf (SnE 2005, 21): hann heitir ok Valfǫðr, þvíat hans óskasynir eru allir þeir, er í val falla ‘He is also called Valfǫðr, because all those who fall in battle are his foster-sons’. The name is also recorded in Grí 48/3 and Vsp 1/5, 27/7. — [8] Vingnir: A mythical name for the god Þórr and for a giant (see Note to Þul Jǫtna I 5/8), and also a heiti for ‘ox’ (see Note to Þul Øxna 1/10). As a name for Óðinn, Vingnir occurs only in the present stanza (and in LaufE). According to Falk (1924, 34), the name could have been transferred to Óðinn owing to a misinterpretation of the line vitnis vígi at ‘in the fight with the wolf’ as vingnis vígi at ‘in the fight with Vingnir’ in the Codex Regius version of Vafþr 53/6 (NK 55). — [8] Rǫgnir: The origin of this frequently used Óðinn-heiti is debated. According to Falk (1924, 24), ON Rǫgnir is cognate with Goth. ragineis ‘counsellor’, while Finnur Jónsson (LP: Rǫgnir) gives the meaning ‘ruler’. There may be a connection with the weak verb ragna ‘perform sorcery, bewitch’ and with rǫgn (regin) n. pl. ‘divine powers, gods’, hence perhaps ‘lord of the gods’ (see AEW: rǫgn).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  5. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  6. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  7. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  8. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  9. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  10. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  11. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  12. Saxo 2005 = Friis-Jensen, Karsten, ed. 2005. Saxo Grammaticus: Gesta Danorum / Danmarkshistorien. Trans. Peter Zeeberg. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Det danske sprog- og litteraturselskab & Gads forlag.
  13. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  14. Falk, Hjalmar. 1924. Odensheite. Skrifter utg. av Videnskapsselskapet i Kristiania. II. Hist.-filos. kl. 1924, 10. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  15. Grimm, Jakob [Jacob]. 1875-8. Deutsche Mythologie. 3 vols. 4th edn by Elard Hugo Meyer. Berlin: Ferd. Dümmlers Verlagsbuchhandlung.
  16. Strandberg, Mathias. 2008. ‘On the Etymology of Compounded Old Icelandic Óðinn names with the Second Component -fǫðr’. SI 59, 93-120.
  17. Internal references
  18. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=113> (accessed 25 September 2021)
  19. (forthcoming), ‘ Heimskringla, Ynglinga saga’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=158> (accessed 25 September 2021)
  20. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 707.
  21. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 715.
  22. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hafrs heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 893.
  23. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 885.
  24. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Veðra heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 918.
  25. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hauks heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 941.
  26. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Bragi inn gamli Boddason, Ragnarsdrápa 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 35.
  27. Not published: do not cite ()
  28. Not published: do not cite ()
  29. Not published: do not cite ()
  30. Not published: do not cite ()
  31. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 289.
  32. Not published: do not cite ()
  33. Not published: do not cite ()
  34. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 24’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 52.
  35. (forthcoming), ‘ Unattributed, Laufás Edda’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=10928> (accessed 25 September 2021)
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