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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Øxna 1III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 885.

Anonymous ÞulurØxna heiti

text and translation

Enn skal segja         øxna heiti:
árvakr, drjóni         ok jǫrmunrekr,
simi, Freyr, Reginn,         smiðr, eyþvari,
Rauðr ok rekningr         ok røkkvihliðr,
viggi, bautuðr,         Vingnis stjóri.

Enn skal segja heiti øxna: árvakr, drjóni ok jǫrmunrekr, simi, Freyr, Reginn, smiðr, eyþvari, Rauðr ok rekningr ok røkkvihliðr, viggi, bautuðr, stjóri Vingnis.
‘In addition I shall say names for oxen: alert one, bellower and jǫrmunrekr, simi, Freyr, Reginn, smith, island-borer, Rauðr and driven one and røkkvihliðr, viggi, striker, Vingnir’s guide.

notes and context

None of the heiti for ‘oxen’ listed in this stanza is found in poetry and many are not attested elsewhere. — [1-2]: See Introduction above.



Text is based on reconstruction from the base text and variant apparatus and may contain alternative spellings and other normalisations not visible in the manuscript text. Transcriptions may not have been checked and should not be cited.

editions and texts

Skj: Anonyme digte og vers [XII], IV. ö. Øxna heiti 1: AI, 675, BI, 669, Skald I, 334, NN §2158B; SnE 1848-87, I, 586-7, II, 483, 566, 625, SnE 1931, 210, SnE 1998, I, 130.


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