Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hafrs heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 893.
Hafr heitir Grímnir ok Geirǫlnir,
Tanngnjóstr, kjappi ok Tanngrisnir,
skimuðr ok brúsi, bokkr, Grímr taliðr.
Hafr heitir Grímnir ok Geirǫlnir, Tanngnjóstr, kjappi ok Tanngrisnir, skimuðr ok brúsi, bokkr, Grímr taliðr.
A male goat is called Grímnir and Geirǫlnir, Tanngnjóstr, chopper and Tanngrisnir, one looking around and rusher, buck, Grímr [is] counted.
Mss: R(44r), Tˣ(46r), C(13r), A(20r), B(9v), 744ˣ(80v) (SnE)
Readings:  Hafr: ‘[…]afr’ B, Hafr 744ˣ  ‑ǫlnir: ‑ólnir B  ‑gnjóstr: ‘‑gíostr’ B  ok: om. Tˣ  skimuðr: ‘skæmotr’ A, ‘ske᷎motr’ B; ok: om. Tˣ  taliðr: so Tˣ, A, ‘talaliðr’ R, C, ‘[…]’ B, ‘t . . . .’ 744ˣ
Notes:  Grímnir: Lit. ‘masked one’ or ‘cowled one’ (from gríma f. ‘mask, hood’; cf. Grímr in l. 6 below). Otherwise this goat-heiti is the name of a giant and a name for Óðinn (Þul Óðins 1/7). —  Geirǫlnir: Lit. ‘spear-feeder’. The first element is geirr m. ‘spear’ and the second is derived from the strong verb ala ‘nourish, feed’. As a heiti for ‘goat’ the name does not occur elsewhere, but Geirǫlnir is a name for Óðinn (see Þul Óðins 5/6 and Note to Grímnir, l. 1 above). Cf. also Ǫlni (Þul Dverga 4/4). —  Tanngnjóstr: Lit. ‘tooth-gnasher’. The first element of the cpd is from tǫnn f. ‘tooth’ and the second is related to the weak verb gnísta ‘gnash’ and other onomatopoetic words such as the strong verb gnesta ‘crackle’ and the noun gnaust ‘noise’. Tanngnjóstr is one of the goats that pull Þórr’s chariot (Gylf, SnE 2005, 23). See also Tanngrisnir (l. 4). —  kjappi (m.) ‘chopper’: A pet name for a billy-goat, which in Modern Icelandic also has the form kjabbi and kjaffi (CVC: kjappi). The word does not appear in skaldic poetry, but it is attested in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: kjappi). Its origin is not clear (ÍO: kjappi, kjabbi, kjaffi). —  Tanngrisnir: Or ‑grísnir (the quantity of the root vowel cannot be established with certainty). The other of Þórr’s two goats (see Note to Tanngnjóstr in l. 3). The name has been explained as ‘one with widely spaced teeth’ from grisinn < *grísa, cf. New Norw. grisa ‘show teeth’ (Finnur Jónsson 1919, 304). Alternatively, the second element could be related to Faroese grísla ‘gnash’ and ‑grísnir would then mean ‘gnasher’ (‘one who gnashes his teeth’; ÍO: ‑grísnir, ‑grisnir). Cf. also the wolf-name Hrísgrísnir ‘one who gnashes (his teeth) in the bushes’ (SnE 1998, II, 319; Eyv Hál 6/4I and Note there). —  skimuðr (m.) ‘one looking around’: An agent noun from the weak verb skima ‘look around’ which is not attested elsewhere. —  brúsi (m.) ‘rusher’: This heiti for ‘goat’ is either connected with ModSwed. brusa ‘rush’ (AEW: brúsi) or with New Norw. bruse ‘lock of hair on the forehead of animals’, hence possibly ‘tufted one’ (so SnE 1998, II, 252). Cf. Hym 26/5 (NK 93) flotbrúsa ‘float-goat [SHIP]’ and the name of the giant Brúsi in Orms þáttr Stórólfssonar (Faulkes 2011b, 57-78). The connection between brúsi and the next heiti, bokkr ‘buck’ still survives in the Norwegian fairytale De tre bukkene bruse ‘The Three Billy Goats Gruff’. —  bokkr (m.) ‘buck’: One of the few goat-heiti in this þula that occurs in a kenning (KormǪ Lv 59/4V (Korm 80)). However, the kenning for ‘eel’ invented by Kormákr, bokkar díkis ‘billy-goats of the ditch’, is non-traditional (Gurevich 1994, 147-8). —  Grímr: Lit. ‘masked one’. See Note to l. 1 above. Grímr is the name of a goat in Droplaugarsona saga (ch. 14, ÍF 11, 177), and in Modern Swedish dialects grima is a term for a black-muzzled she-goat. This heiti is also a name for Óðinn (see also Grímnir l. 1 above and Þul Óðins 3/1, 7/7), a dwarf-name (Þul Dverga 2/1) and a heiti for ‘serpent’ (see Þul Orma 2/5).
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