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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Hafrs 1III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hafrs heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 893.

Anonymous ÞulurHafrs heiti
12

Hafr heitir Grímnir         ok Geirǫlnir,
Tanngnjóstr, kjappi         ok Tanngrisnir,
skimuðr ok brúsi,         bokkr, Grímr taliðr.

Hafr heitir Grímnir ok Geirǫlnir, Tanngnjóstr, kjappi ok Tanngrisnir, skimuðr ok brúsi, bokkr, Grímr taliðr.

A male goat is called Grímnir and Geirǫlnir, Tanngnjóstr, chopper and Tanngrisnir, one looking around and rusher, buck, Grímr [is] counted.

Mss: R(44r), Tˣ(46r), C(13r), A(20r), B(9v), 744ˣ(80v) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Hafr: ‘[…]afr’ B, Hafr 744ˣ    [2] ‑ǫlnir: ‑ólnir B    [3] ‑gnjóstr: ‘‑gíostr’ B    [4] ok: om. Tˣ    [5] skimuðr: ‘skæmotr’ A, ‘ske᷎motr’ B;    ok: om. Tˣ    [6] taliðr: so Tˣ, A, ‘talaliðr’ R, C, ‘[…]’ B, ‘t . . . .’ 744ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 676, Skj BI, 670, Skald I, 334; SnE 1848-87, I, 589, II, 484, 567, 626, SnE 1931, 211, SnE 1998, I, 131.   

Notes: [1] Grímnir: Lit. ‘masked one’ or ‘cowled one’ (from gríma f. ‘mask, hood’; cf. Grímr in l. 6 below). Otherwise this goat-heiti is the name of a giant and a name for Óðinn (Þul Óðins 1/7). — [2] Geirǫlnir: Lit. ‘spear-feeder’. The first element is geirr m. ‘spear’ and the second is derived from the strong verb ala ‘nourish, feed’. As a heiti for ‘goat’ the name does not occur elsewhere, but Geirǫlnir is a name for Óðinn (see Þul Óðins 5/6 and Note to Grímnir, l. 1 above). Cf. also Ǫlni (Þul Dverga 4/4). — [3] Tanngnjóstr: Lit. ‘tooth-gnasher’. The first element of the cpd is from tǫnn f. ‘tooth’ and the second is related to the weak verb gnísta ‘gnash’ and other onomatopoetic words such as the strong verb gnesta ‘crackle’ and the noun gnaust ‘noise’. Tanngnjóstr is one of the goats that pull Þórr’s chariot (Gylf, SnE 2005, 23). See also Tanngrisnir (l. 4). — [3] kjappi (m.) ‘chopper’: A pet name for a billy-goat, which in Modern Icelandic also has the form kjabbi and kjaffi  (CVC: kjappi). The word does not appear in skaldic poetry, but it is attested in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: kjappi). Its origin is not clear (ÍO: kjappi, kjabbi, kjaffi). — [4] Tanngrisnir: Or ‑grísnir (the quantity of the root vowel cannot be established with certainty). The other of Þórr’s two goats (see Note to Tanngnjóstr in l. 3). The name has been explained as ‘one with widely spaced teeth’ from grisinn < *grísa, cf. New Norw. grisa ‘show teeth’ (Finnur Jónsson 1919, 304). Alternatively, the second element could be related to Faroese grísla ‘gnash’ and ‑grísnir would then mean ‘gnasher’ (‘one who gnashes his teeth’; ÍO: ‑grísnir, ‑grisnir). Cf. also the wolf-name Hrísgrísnir ‘one who gnashes (his teeth) in the bushes’ (SnE 1998, II, 319; Eyv Hál 6/4I and Note there). — [5] skimuðr (m.) ‘one looking around’: An agent noun from the weak verb skima ‘look around’ which is not attested elsewhere. — [5] brúsi (m.) ‘rusher’: This heiti for ‘goat’ is either connected with ModSwed. brusa ‘rush’ (AEW: brúsi) or with New Norw. bruse ‘lock of hair on the forehead of animals’, hence possibly ‘tufted one’ (so SnE 1998, II, 252). Cf. Hym 26/5 (NK 93) flotbrúsa ‘float-goat [SHIP]’ and the name of the giant Brúsi in Orms þáttr Stórólfssonar (Faulkes 2011b, 57-78). The connection between brúsi and the next heiti, bokkr ‘buck’ still survives in the Norwegian fairytale De tre bukkene bruse ‘The Three Billy Goats Gruff’. — [6] bokkr (m.) ‘buck’: One of the few goat-heiti in this þula that occurs in a kenning (KormǪ Lv 59/4V (Korm 80)). However, the kenning for ‘eel’ invented by Kormákr, bokkar díkis ‘billy-goats of the ditch’, is non-traditional (Gurevich 1994, 147-8). — [6] Grímr: Lit. ‘masked one’. See Note to l. 1 above. Grímr is the name of a goat in Droplaugarsona saga (ch. 14, ÍF 11, 177), and in Modern Swedish dialects grima is a term for a black-muzzled she-goat. This heiti is also a name for Óðinn (see also Grímnir l. 1 above and Þul Óðins 3/1, 7/7), a dwarf-name (Þul Dverga 2/1) and a heiti for ‘serpent’ (see Þul Orma 2/5).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  5. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  6. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  7. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  8. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  9. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  10. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  11. ÍF 11 = Austfirðinga sǫgur. Ed. Jón Jóhannesson. 1950.
  12. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  13. Finnur Jónsson. 1919. ‘Maskuline substantiver på -nir’. ANF 35, 302-8.
  14. Gurevich, Elena A. 1994. ‘The System of Kennings’. Nordica Bergensia 3, 139-56.
  15. Faulkes, Anthony. 2011b. Two Icelandic Stories: Hreiðars þáttr, Orms þáttr. New edition. London: Viking Society. First published [n. d. (1967)].
  16. Internal references
  17. (forthcoming), ‘ Anonymous, Droplaugarsona saga’ in Tarrin Wills, Kari Ellen Gade and Margaret Clunies Ross (eds), Poetry in Sagas of Icelanders. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 5. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=24> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  18. 2017, ‘ Anonymous, Orms þáttr Stórólfssonar’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 602. <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=80> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  19. (forthcoming), ‘ Snorri Sturluson, Gylfaginning’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. . <https://skaldic.org/m.php?p=text&i=113> (accessed 18 September 2021)
  20. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Dverga heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 695.
  21. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Dverga heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 699.
  22. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 732.
  23. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 739.
  24. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 743.
  25. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orma heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 929.
  26. Not published: do not cite ()
  27. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 204.
  28. Not published: do not cite (KormǪ Lv 59V (Korm 80))
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