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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Rv Lv 33III

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2017, ‘Rǫgnvaldr jarl Kali Kolsson, Lausavísur 33’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 342.

Rǫgnvaldr jarl Kali KolssonLausavísur
3334

eða ‘and’

eða (conj.): or

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ǫðrum ‘other’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

kennings

ǫðrum ulfbrynndum
‘other wolf-waterers ’
   = WARRIORS

other wolf-waterers → WARRIORS
Close

ulf ‘wolf’

1. ulfr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): wolf < ulfbrynnandi (noun m.)

kennings

ǫðrum ulfbrynndum
‘other wolf-waterers ’
   = WARRIORS

other wolf-waterers → WARRIORS

notes

[2] ulfbrynndum ‘wolf-waterers [WARRIORS]’: This emendation is adopted from Skj B. Although such a kenning would be unique, there are close parallels in which a wolf-term is compounded with a participial agent noun referring to its feeding, e.g. ulfnistandi ‘wolf-feeder’ (ESk Hardr I 1/6II) and vargseðjandi ‘wolf-sater’ (Anon (Orkn) 1/6II); see also Meissner 346. In this particular case, ‘wolf-waterers’ are warriors quenching the thirst of wolves with blood. Despite the prose context (see Context, above), which suggests that this emendation is correct, LaufE X, faced with the reading ulfbrynjuðum (m. dat. pl.) lit. ‘wolf-armoured ones’, goes on to explain the kenning as hier er madurinn kiendur, ulfbriniadur, so sem væri hann ofan j ulfin komin ‘here the man is said to be “wolf-armoured,” as if he had entered the wolf’ (LaufE 1979, 290). The Y branch (LaufE 1979, 370) only has hier er madur kalladur ulfbryniadur ‘here the man is called “wolf-armoured”’.

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brynndum ‘waterers’

brynnandi (noun m.): [waterers] < ulfbrynnandi (noun m.)

[2] ‑brynndum: ‘‑bryníndum’ W, ‑brynjuðum papp10ˣ, 1494ˣ, 2368ˣ, 743ˣ

kennings

ǫðrum ulfbrynndum
‘other wolf-waterers ’
   = WARRIORS

other wolf-waterers → WARRIORS

notes

[2] ulfbrynndum ‘wolf-waterers [WARRIORS]’: This emendation is adopted from Skj B. Although such a kenning would be unique, there are close parallels in which a wolf-term is compounded with a participial agent noun referring to its feeding, e.g. ulfnistandi ‘wolf-feeder’ (ESk Hardr I 1/6II) and vargseðjandi ‘wolf-sater’ (Anon (Orkn) 1/6II); see also Meissner 346. In this particular case, ‘wolf-waterers’ are warriors quenching the thirst of wolves with blood. Despite the prose context (see Context, above), which suggests that this emendation is correct, LaufE X, faced with the reading ulfbrynjuðum (m. dat. pl.) lit. ‘wolf-armoured ones’, goes on to explain the kenning as hier er madurinn kiendur, ulfbriniadur, so sem væri hann ofan j ulfin komin ‘here the man is said to be “wolf-armoured,” as if he had entered the wolf’ (LaufE 1979, 290). The Y branch (LaufE 1979, 370) only has hier er madur kalladur ulfbryniadur ‘here the man is called “wolf-armoured”’.

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heiðs ‘of the bright’

4. heiðr (adj.): bright

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

heiðs ‘of the bright’

4. heiðr (adj.): bright

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hilmi ‘ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

[3] hilmi: hjalmi W, papp10ˣ, 743ˣ, hjalma 1494ˣ, hjalms 2368ˣ

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

blíðan ‘the gracious’

blíðr (adj.; °n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, happy

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

‘high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high < hárann (noun n.)

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

‘high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high < hárann (noun n.)

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

ranns ‘hall’

rann (noun n.): house, hall < hárann (noun n.)

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

ranns ‘hall’

rann (noun n.): house, hall < hárann (noun n.)

kennings

blíðan hilmi heiðs háranns.
‘the gracious ruler of the bright high hall. ’
   = God

the bright high hall. → SKY/HEAVEN
the gracious ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Along with Arn Hryn 6/1-4II, this quatrain is quoted as an example of kennings in which a man is said to be the fattener or feeder of carrion birds or wolves.

Despite his pilgrimage to the Holy Land (see his Biography in SkP II), Rǫgnvaldr is not particularly noted for piety in his surviving poetry. However, this stanza would fit well with Rv Lv 29II, in which Rǫgnvaldr encourages his men to approach the holy places with humble devotion as they near Jerusalem on their return from the Jordan.

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