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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 26VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 26’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 95-6.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
252627

Hverr ‘which’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

kennings

hverr hendir loga fjarðar
‘which distributor of the fire of the fjord ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the fjord → GOLD
which distributor of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

s ‘so’

svá (adv.): so, thus

[1] s hendir: ‘s[...]nnder’ B, ‘[...]h[...]nnder’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘(s)[...] [...](æ)nnder’(?) BRydberg, ‘s(va) [...]nndir’(?) BFJ

notes

[1] s hendir: B is very dark and badly worn; <h> is confirmed by the alliteration. Reconstruction to svá hendir is suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson in a marginal note to 444ˣ, and has been adopted by all eds.

Close

hendir ‘distributor’

hendir (noun m.): [distributor]

[1] s hendir: ‘s[...]nnder’ B, ‘[...]h[...]nnder’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘(s)[...] [...](æ)nnder’(?) BRydberg, ‘s(va) [...]nndir’(?) BFJ

kennings

hverr hendir loga fjarðar
‘which distributor of the fire of the fjord ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the fjord → GOLD
which distributor of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[1] s hendir: B is very dark and badly worn; <h> is confirmed by the alliteration. Reconstruction to svá hendir is suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson in a marginal note to 444ˣ, and has been adopted by all eds.

Close

loga ‘of the fire’

logi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flame

kennings

hverr hendir loga fjarðar
‘which distributor of the fire of the fjord ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the fjord → GOLD
which distributor of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

loga ‘of the fire’

logi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flame

kennings

hverr hendir loga fjarðar
‘which distributor of the fire of the fjord ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the fjord → GOLD
which distributor of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

fjarðar ‘of the fjord’

fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord

kennings

hverr hendir loga fjarðar
‘which distributor of the fire of the fjord ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the fjord → GOLD
which distributor of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

fjarðar ‘of the fjord’

fjǫrðr (noun m.): fjord

kennings

hverr hendir loga fjarðar
‘which distributor of the fire of the fjord ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the fjord → GOLD
which distributor of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

éla ‘of storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

éla ‘of storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

éla ‘of storms’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

ranns ‘of the house’

rann (noun n.): house, hall

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

ranns ‘of the house’

rann (noun n.): house, hall

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

ranns ‘of the house’

rann (noun n.): house, hall

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

ynni ‘he loved’

1. unna (verb): love

Close

ítr ‘Glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

‘…’

(non-lexical)

[4] …: ‘[...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God

notes

[4] : The ms. is badly torn. Traces of a tall letter, possibly an <f> and an abbreviation remain, but these are uncertain. Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s reconstruction to festir ‘fastener’, an agent noun from the verb festa ‘to fasten’ is perhaps inspired by the similar ll. at 50/2-3 ítr postoli rítar | fróns musteris festir. Rydberg (1907, lxxi) claims to see traces of a <g> here, and reconstructs gervir ‘creator’, which is adopted by Finnur Jónsson, Kock and Black. This seems unlikely, however, since the previous transcribers of the ms., those responsible for 399a-bˣ, record no trace of it. Rydberg compares Geisl 65/5, where God is referred to as gervir himna ‘maker of the heavens’, in support of his reconstruction. Clearly, there is a God-kenning here, but the base-word cannot be supplied with any certainty.

Close

rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

Ítr … rítar ranns éla,
‘Glorious … of the shield of the house of storms, ’
   = God

the house of storms, → SKY/HEAVEN
the shield of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Glorious … of the SUN → God
Close

þrek ‘power’

þrek (noun n.): courage, strength < þreknenninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

þreknenninn sættandi ýta?
‘powerful reconciler of men?’
   = God

powerful reconciler of men? → God

notes

[5] þreknenninn ‘powerful’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ), followed by Kempff, construes with his reconstruction Þrór ‘Óðinn’ in l. 6 (see following Note).

Close

nenninn ‘ful’

nenninn (adj.): vigorous < þreknenninn (adj./verb p.p.)

kennings

þreknenninn sættandi ýta?
‘powerful reconciler of men?’
   = God

powerful reconciler of men? → God

notes

[5] þreknenninn ‘powerful’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ), followed by Kempff, construes with his reconstruction Þrór ‘Óðinn’ in l. 6 (see following Note).

Close

‘a …’

(non-lexical)

[6] …: ‘[...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ

kennings

… ormlands
‘a … of the snake-land ’
   = MAN

the snake-land → GOLD
a … of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[6] : Once again, B is badly worn and no one has been able to discern any trace of the missing letters. The alliterative scheme requires a word with initial <þ>, which must serve as the base-word of a man-kenning with the determinant ormlands (‘of the land of the snake [GOLD]’). Man-kennings of this type elsewhere in the poem and generally suggest that a noun meaning ‘destroyer’ or ‘distributer’, a god-name or a tree-name would be appropriate choices. Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1844, 21 n. 35), followed by Kempff, suggests reconstruction to Þrór, an Óðinn-heiti. Skj B suggests reconstruction to þollr ‘tree’, which has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

Close

sættandi ‘reconciler’

sættandi (noun m.): reconciler

kennings

þreknenninn sættandi ýta?
‘powerful reconciler of men?’
   = God

powerful reconciler of men? → God

notes

[6-7] sættandi ýta ‘reconciler of men [= God (= Christ)]’: This is a particularly appropriate Christ-kenning, given that Gamli is here challenging his hearers to consider their responses to Christ’s attempt to make peace between themselves and God. Compare the similar assertion in st. 17, which seeks to manipulate the hearer’s response to Christ as peacemaker (see especially ll. 5-6).

Close

ýta ‘of men’

ýtr (noun m.): man; launcher

kennings

þreknenninn sættandi ýta?
‘powerful reconciler of men?’
   = God

powerful reconciler of men? → God

notes

[6-7] sættandi ýta ‘reconciler of men [= God (= Christ)]’: This is a particularly appropriate Christ-kenning, given that Gamli is here challenging his hearers to consider their responses to Christ’s attempt to make peace between themselves and God. Compare the similar assertion in st. 17, which seeks to manipulate the hearer’s response to Christ as peacemaker (see especially ll. 5-6).

Close

orm ‘of the snake’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent < ormland (noun n.)

kennings

… ormlands
‘a … of the snake-land ’
   = MAN

the snake-land → GOLD
a … of the GOLD → MAN
Close

orm ‘of the snake’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent < ormland (noun n.)

kennings

… ormlands
‘a … of the snake-land ’
   = MAN

the snake-land → GOLD
a … of the GOLD → MAN
Close

lands ‘land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < ormland (noun n.)

kennings

… ormlands
‘a … of the snake-land ’
   = MAN

the snake-land → GOLD
a … of the GOLD → MAN
Close

lands ‘land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land < ormland (noun n.)

kennings

… ormlands
‘a … of the snake-land ’
   = MAN

the snake-land → GOLD
a … of the GOLD → MAN
Close

standa ‘stand’

standa (verb): stand

Close

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