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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hryn 9II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 193-4.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda, Magnússdrápa
8910

vas ‘it happened’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] vas þats (‘var þat er’): vann þá Flat

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þats ‘that’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[1] vas þats (‘var þat er’): vann þá Flat

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sunnr ‘south’

sunnr (adv.): south

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með ‘along’

með (prep.): with

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láði ‘the coast’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

[1] láði: landi Hr, Flat

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ýtti ‘launched’

ýta (verb): launch

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skíði ‘the ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski

kennings

skíði skorðu
‘the ski of the ship’s prop ’
   = SHIP

the ski of the ship’s prop → SHIP
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of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[3] of: om. Flat

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skorðu ‘of the ship’s prop’

1. skorða (noun f.; °-u; -ur): prop

kennings

skíði skorðu
‘the ski of the ship’s prop ’
   = SHIP

the ski of the ship’s prop → SHIP
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Visundr ‘Visundr (‘Bison’)’

vísundr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): bison

notes

[4] Visundr ‘(“Bison”)’: The ship built by Óláfr helgi and inherited by Magnús; see Note to ÞjóðA Magnfl 4/8.

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norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

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Samnask ‘to rally’

safna (verb): gather

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hǫmlu ‘rowing position’

1. hamla (noun f.; °*-u; *-ur): rowing position

notes

[5] hǫmlu ‘rowing position’: The term hamla has been taken to refer to a rowlock—a loop of leather or rope which holds the oar in place (e.g. Skj B has hamlebåndene for hǫmlur in ÞjóðA Sex 14/3, although til hverrar hǫmlu in the present st. is translated til hver åre ‘to every oar’). Jesch observes that C11th warships ‘did not use such simple devices as loops to control their oars’ and, noting that skaldic examples of hamla are normally in the context of the gathering of a troop, suggests ‘oarsman’s place’ (2001, 156-7).

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hræðask ‘fear’

3. hræða (verb): fear, be afraid

notes

[6] hræðask ‘fear’: This interesting use of the pres. tense is established by the rhyme hræðask : klæði.

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ættar ‘of the offspring’

1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family

kennings

klæði ættar Gjúka;
‘the raiment of the offspring of Gjúki; ’
   = ARMOUR

the raiment of the offspring of Gjúki; → ARMOUR
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klæði ‘the raiment’

klæði (noun n.; °-s; -): clothes

kennings

klæði ættar Gjúka;
‘the raiment of the offspring of Gjúki; ’
   = ARMOUR

the raiment of the offspring of Gjúki; → ARMOUR
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Gjúka ‘of Gjúki’

Gjúki (noun m.): Gjúki

[7] Gjúka: ‘giuku’ Flat

kennings

klæði ættar Gjúka;
‘the raiment of the offspring of Gjúki; ’
   = ARMOUR

the raiment of the offspring of Gjúki; → ARMOUR
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eiki ‘the oaken vessel’

eiki (noun n.): oak, oak ship

[7] eiki: ‘ecke’ Flat

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girzkum ‘with its Russian’

girzkr (adj.): Greek; Russian

[8] girzkum: so Hr, ‘gorðzkvm’ H, ‘gerzskum’ Flat

notes

[8] girzkum malmi ‘Russian metal’: The ms. form ‘g᷎ðzkv̄’ (i.e. gǫrðzkvm, cf. ‘dām᷎k’ beside ‘danmǫrk’ elsewhere in H) is here assumed to be a graphic variant of gerzkr/gerðskr, cf. the variant forms ‘ger(ð)zki’, ‘gærzke’ and ‘gørzci’ for (Guðleikr) gerzki in mss of ÓH 1941, I, 120. Another, less likely, possibility is that it represents the m. dat. sg. of an adj. *garzkr ‘from Garðar’. Girzkr could mean either ‘Russian, from Garðar’ or ‘Greek’ (cf. Note to st. 4/4). The girzkr malmr which adorns the ship could be weapons which the warriors carry on board along with their armour, or perhaps, since málmr elsewhere in ON poetry means ‘gold’, ornament on the prow, stern and / or mast-head. In the main ms., ‘hialmi’ is clearly a case of dittography from ‘hialma’ later in the l.

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malmi ‘metal’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

[8] malmi: so Hr, Flat, hjalmi H

notes

[8] girzkum malmi ‘Russian metal’: The ms. form ‘g᷎ðzkv̄’ (i.e. gǫrðzkvm, cf. ‘dām᷎k’ beside ‘danmǫrk’ elsewhere in H) is here assumed to be a graphic variant of gerzkr/gerðskr, cf. the variant forms ‘ger(ð)zki’, ‘gærzke’ and ‘gørzci’ for (Guðleikr) gerzki in mss of ÓH 1941, I, 120. Another, less likely, possibility is that it represents the m. dat. sg. of an adj. *garzkr ‘from Garðar’. Girzkr could mean either ‘Russian, from Garðar’ or ‘Greek’ (cf. Note to st. 4/4). The girzkr malmr which adorns the ship could be weapons which the warriors carry on board along with their armour, or perhaps, since málmr elsewhere in ON poetry means ‘gold’, ornament on the prow, stern and / or mast-head. In the main ms., ‘hialmi’ is clearly a case of dittography from ‘hialma’ later in the l.

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Peitu ‘from Poitou’

Peita (noun f.): Poitou

[8] Peitu: ‘petu’ Flat

notes

[8] hjalma Peitu ‘helmets from Poitou’: The phrase is probably used metonymically here to refer to Magnús’s helmeted warriors. This is not paralleled elsewhere, although the personal names Hjálmr and Hjálmarr may have arisen from the notion that a man was the ‘helmet’ of his people. There is a precedent for the mention of a ‘Poitou-made helmet’, in Sigv Nesv 15/3, 4I (1016), and a French helmet appears in Sigv Nesv 5/6I. Arms from Poitou were apparently renowned, for peita came to be used in poetry as an appellative for ‘spear’.

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hjalma ‘helmets’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet

notes

[8] hjalma Peitu ‘helmets from Poitou’: The phrase is probably used metonymically here to refer to Magnús’s helmeted warriors. This is not paralleled elsewhere, although the personal names Hjálmr and Hjálmarr may have arisen from the notion that a man was the ‘helmet’ of his people. There is a precedent for the mention of a ‘Poitou-made helmet’, in Sigv Nesv 15/3, 4I (1016), and a French helmet appears in Sigv Nesv 5/6I. Arms from Poitou were apparently renowned, for peita came to be used in poetry as an appellative for ‘spear’.

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Stanzas 9 and 10, concerning Magnús’s voyage south, are quoted as a prelude to the legendary account of a feast in Denmark at which Hǫrðaknútr entertained Magnús, only to be himself poisoned by a draught which Álfífa, mother of Sveinn, had intended for the Norw. guest. Snorri in Hkr omits reference to the poisoning. He does not quote st. 9 but sets st. 10 within an account of Magnús’s voyage south to claim Denmark after the death of Hǫrðaknútr in England.

[3-4]: Parallels with Bjhit Lv 2/7-8V are noted in the context of the biographical link between the two skalds by Frank (1978, 114-5).

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