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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Berv 9II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Bersǫglisvísur 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 20-1.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonBersǫglisvísur
8910

Skulut ‘must not’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[1] Skulut: Skulu 61, Flat

notes

[1, 2] ráðgjafar yðrir skulut reiðask ‘your counsellors must not get enraged’: Skulut reiðask ráðgjǫfum yðrum ‘you should not get enraged at your counsellors’ (so , 39) is syntactically correct but goes against the majority ms. witnesses (so also Skald). Moreover, Sigvatr is speaking against the king’s counsellors on behalf of the farmers (see also the prose in H-Hr). Skj B follows the version but emends skulut (2nd pers. pl.) (l. 1) to skalat (3rd pers. sg.) ‘one should not’.

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ráð ‘counsellors’

ráð (noun n.; °-s; -): advice, plan, control, power < ráðgjafi (noun m.): counsellor

notes

[1, 2] ráðgjafar yðrir skulut reiðask ‘your counsellors must not get enraged’: Skulut reiðask ráðgjǫfum yðrum ‘you should not get enraged at your counsellors’ (so , 39) is syntactically correct but goes against the majority ms. witnesses (so also Skald). Moreover, Sigvatr is speaking against the king’s counsellors on behalf of the farmers (see also the prose in H-Hr). Skj B follows the version but emends skulut (2nd pers. pl.) (l. 1) to skalat (3rd pers. sg.) ‘one should not’.

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gjafar ‘’

gjafi (noun m.): giver < ráðgjafi (noun m.): counsellor

[1] ‑gjafar: so E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ(584va), 972ˣ(585vb), 325VI, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, 325VII, 325V, 61, Bb, H, Hr, 325XI 3, Flat, ‑gjǫfum Kˣ, 39, gjafa Tóm

notes

[1, 2] ráðgjafar yðrir skulut reiðask ‘your counsellors must not get enraged’: Skulut reiðask ráðgjǫfum yðrum ‘you should not get enraged at your counsellors’ (so , 39) is syntactically correct but goes against the majority ms. witnesses (so also Skald). Moreover, Sigvatr is speaking against the king’s counsellors on behalf of the farmers (see also the prose in H-Hr). Skj B follows the version but emends skulut (2nd pers. pl.) (l. 1) to skalat (3rd pers. sg.) ‘one should not’.

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reiðask ‘get enraged’

4. reiða (verb): make angry

notes

[1, 2] ráðgjafar yðrir skulut reiðask ‘your counsellors must not get enraged’: Skulut reiðask ráðgjǫfum yðrum ‘you should not get enraged at your counsellors’ (so , 39) is syntactically correct but goes against the majority ms. witnesses (so also Skald). Moreover, Sigvatr is speaking against the king’s counsellors on behalf of the farmers (see also the prose in H-Hr). Skj B follows the version but emends skulut (2nd pers. pl.) (l. 1) to skalat (3rd pers. sg.) ‘one should not’.

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ryðr ‘will open the way’

2. ryðja (verb): to clear (free) land

[2] ryðr: ryð er 61

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konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[2] konungr: konung 972ˣ(585vb), konungar Flat

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yðrir ‘your’

yðvarr (pron.; °f. yður; pl. yðrir): your

[2] yðrir: so E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 325VI, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, 325VII, 325V, Tóm, Bb, H, 325XI 3, Flat, yðrum Kˣ, 39, 61, ‘yþr’ 972ˣ(584va), ‘ydur’ 972ˣ(585vb), yðvar Hr

notes

[1, 2] ráðgjafar yðrir skulut reiðask ‘your counsellors must not get enraged’: Skulut reiðask ráðgjǫfum yðrum ‘you should not get enraged at your counsellors’ (so , 39) is syntactically correct but goes against the majority ms. witnesses (so also Skald). Moreover, Sigvatr is speaking against the king’s counsellors on behalf of the farmers (see also the prose in H-Hr). Skj B follows the version but emends skulut (2nd pers. pl.) (l. 1) to skalat (3rd pers. sg.) ‘one should not’.

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dróttins ‘royal’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

[3] dróttins: dróttni 325VII

notes

[3] orð dróttins ‘royal command’: Lit. ‘word of the lord’. Anticipates Magnús’s command to his counsellors to refrain from interfering with Sigvatr’s plea. Finnur reads til dýrðar dróttins ‘[that word leads] to the glory of the king’, which creates an awkward w. o. Kock’s translation of orð dróttins as härskarns rykte ‘the lord’s reputation’ (det renar härskarns rykte, banar vägen för beröm ‘that clears the lord’s reputation, opens up the way for glory’; NN §1866) is syntactically obscure (ryðja til e-s ‘clear, open up’ is never constructed with an acc. in addition to the prepositional phrase; see Fritzner: ryðja).

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orð ‘command’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word

notes

[3] orð dróttins ‘royal command’: Lit. ‘word of the lord’. Anticipates Magnús’s command to his counsellors to refrain from interfering with Sigvatr’s plea. Finnur reads til dýrðar dróttins ‘[that word leads] to the glory of the king’, which creates an awkward w. o. Kock’s translation of orð dróttins as härskarns rykte ‘the lord’s reputation’ (det renar härskarns rykte, banar vägen för beröm ‘that clears the lord’s reputation, opens up the way for glory’; NN §1866) is syntactically obscure (ryðja til e-s ‘clear, open up’ is never constructed with an acc. in addition to the prepositional phrase; see Fritzner: ryðja).

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til ‘for’

til (prep.): to

[3] til dýrðar: om. 61

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dýrðar ‘glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

[3] til dýrðar: om. 61

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við ‘at’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[4] við: í 972ˣ(584va), viðr 325VI

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sǫgli ‘speaking’

-sǫgli (noun f.): [speaking] < bersǫgli (noun f.)

[4] ‑sǫgli: ‑sǫglu or ‑sǫgli 321ˣ

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Hafa ‘they have’

hafa (verb): have

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kveðask ‘claim’

kveða (verb): say, recite

[5] kveðask: kvðusk 972ˣ(584va), Tóm, kveða 325V, 61, kvezk FskBˣ, ‘kuozt’ Flat

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lǫg ‘laws’

lag (noun n.; °-s; *-): layer; (pl.) law

notes

[5-8]: Magnús’s earlier legislation in Ulvesundet (in Nordfjord, Norway) is not mentioned in any saga.

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ljúgi ‘lie’

ljúga (verb): lie

[5] ljúgi: lýgi Holm2, 972ˣ(584va), 972ˣ(585vb), Flat

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búendr ‘The farmers’

búandi (noun m.; °-a; búendr (bøendr var. ÓH 47¹²: AM 325 VII 4° “325 VII”), dat. búǫndum/búandum/búendum): farmer, resident

[6] búendr: so E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ(584va), 972ˣ(585vb), 321ˣ, 73aˣ, 325V, 61, H, 325XI 3, bœndr Kˣ, 325VI, Bb, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, Hr, Flat, konungr 39, 325VII, Tóm

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verri ‘inferior’

verri (adj. comp.): worse, worst

notes

[5-8]: Magnús’s earlier legislation in Ulvesundet (in Nordfjord, Norway) is not mentioned in any saga.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[7] í: om. E

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Ulfa ‘Ulve’

1. ulfr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): wolf < Ulfasund (noun n.)

[7] Ulfa‑: ‘vilpa’ E, ‘ulba‑’ Flat

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ǫnnur ‘other’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

[8] ǫnnur: ‘[…]nvr’ 325XI 3

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þú ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

notes

[8] þú hézt ‘you promised’: Retention of the pron. þú ‘you’ (so all mss) forces elision in metrical position 2 involving a closed syllable and a syllable with vocalic onset (-ur a-; ǫnnur an ‘other than’). That does not otherwise occur in early dróttkvætt poetry (see Kuhn 1983, 67). However, Sigvatr is known for bending the rules of skaldic composition, and full stress on the pron. þú certainly seems warranted by the tenor of the st.

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hézt ‘promised’

2. heita (verb): be called, promise

notes

[8] þú hézt ‘you promised’: Retention of the pron. þú ‘you’ (so all mss) forces elision in metrical position 2 involving a closed syllable and a syllable with vocalic onset (-ur a-; ǫnnur an ‘other than’). That does not otherwise occur in early dróttkvætt poetry (see Kuhn 1983, 67). However, Sigvatr is known for bending the rules of skaldic composition, and full stress on the pron. þú certainly seems warranted by the tenor of the st.

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mǫnnum ‘people’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

[8] mǫnnum: manna FskBˣ

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