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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Flateyjarbók — Flat

 

Vol. I. Poetry for Scandinavian Rulers 1: From Mythological Times to c. 1035 8. Volume Introduction 3. Sources for skaldic poetry cited in the kings’ sagas: manuscripts, facsimiles and editions 3.1. Sagas of the kings of Norway to c. 1035 3. Flateyjarbók (Flat)

3. Flateyjarbók (Flat)

Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.

Manuscripts

Flat:      Flateyjarbók, GKS 1005 fol (Icelandic, mainly c. 1387-95). Three additional quires (188r-210r) comprise the ‘Younger Flateyjarbók’ (YFlat; see SkP II, lx)

325IV b and 325XI 3: AM 325 IV b 4°, AM 325 XI 3 4°; fragments of the archetype of YFlat (c. 1350-1400). AM 325IV b contains no poetry and 325XI 3 contains poetry edited in SkP II (see p. lx).

Facsimile and editions: Flat 1930; Flat 1860-8, I-III, Louis-Jensen 1970b (fragments).

Flateyjarbók ‘Book of Flatey’ is the name given both to an important compilation and to its ms., a large, magnificently illustrated and well-preserved vellum codex, now consisting of 225 leaves. Most of the codex was written in the late fourteenth century by the priests Jón Þórðarson and Magnús Þorhallsson for Jón Hákonarson of Víðidalstunga in northern Iceland. Flatey was the home of its owner in the mid seventeenth century.

Flat as a compilation draws on an estimated forty to fifty mss (see Rowe 2005 on its genesis). The first phase of writing, done by Jón Þórðarson, consisted of Eiríks saga víðfǫrla, ÓT and ÓH. The latter two are in versions that are greatly expanded relative to other recensions by weaving in sections from other texts, some of which are also extant in other versions (e.g. Færeyinga saga (Fær), Jvs, Hallfreðar saga (Hallfr), Fóstbræðra saga (Fbr)), but many of which are þættir found nowhere else. The second phase of copying was carried out by Magnús Þorhallsson, who added Sverris saga, Hákonar saga gamla, þættir and other short texts, poetry both skaldic and non-skaldic, and annals. Important for the present volume are the articuli or short extracts from the lost saga of S. Óláfr, Lífssaga hins heilaga Óláfs konungs Haraldssonar by Styrmir Kárason (also known as Lífssaga Óláfs helga; Flat 1860-8, III, 239-48; ÓH 1941, II, 683-95). To several of the articuli there are parallel texts in mss Tóm and Bæb (ÓH 1941, II, 695-713); see also Sigurður Nordal (1914, 69-133) for a reconstruction of Styrmir’s Lífssaga. A third, much later phase (late fifteenth century) involved the insertion into Flat of twenty-three leaves containing Magnúss saga góða ok Haralds harðráða, the chronological continuation of ÓH. On the use of the paper mss BLAdd 4867ˣ (4867ˣ) and AM 563a 4to (563aˣ) for the text of Þorleifs þáttr jarlaskálds (ÞorlJ), see below.

Poetry

Flateyjarbók has well over a thousand stanzas, but the majority are also found elsewhere, and the texts tend to be somewhat garbled, especially those copied by Jón Þórðarson (Rowe 2005, 36 n. 4). The principal text-critical significance of this ms. therefore lies in the poetry unique to it, above all Nóregs konungatal (see SkP II, 761-808), a twelfth-century poem of seventy-five stanzas written out in full. . The codex also uniquely attests to over thirty stanzas relating to the period to 1035 and edited in this volume. Most are cited in its unique þættir: Sigurðar þáttr slefu (SSlef): Þklypp Lv; Þorleifs þáttr jarlaskálds (ÞorlJ): Þjsk Sveindr, Þjsk Jarl, Þjsk Lv 5-6, Svtjúg Lv, Hhal Lv; Haralds þáttr hárfagra (HarHárf): Þjóð Har 1-4, Þhorn Gldr 9, Þhorn Harkv 13; Styrbjarnar þáttr Svíakappa (Styrb): Anon (Styrb) 1-3, ÞHjalt Lv 1-2; Eindriða þáttr ok Erlings (EindrErl): Eindr Lv. Other þættir contain numerous stanzas that are recorded elsewhere, including Stefnis þáttr Þorgilssonar (Stefn): Anon (ÓT) 1; Helga þáttr Þórissonar (Helg): ÓTr Lv 2; Þormóðar þáttr Kolbrúnarskálds (Þorm): Þorm Lv 10-11, 15-16; and Vǫlsa þáttr (Vǫlsa): Anon (Vǫlsa) 1-13, Þorm Lv 17 = Anon (Vǫlsa) 11. Further, the Styrmir extracts contain twenty-four stanzas including Anon Liðs 1-10 as an uninterrupted sequence and five stanzas attributed to Óláfr helgi; Ólhelg Lv 4 and 9 are preserved only there. The Flat compilers also inserted Sigv ErfÓl 2 into their text of ÓH and Þrándr Kredda into Fær. On the poetry relating to events after c. 1035, see SkP II, lx, and further poetry from Flat will appear in SkP IV, V and VIII.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  3. ÓH 1941 = Johnsen, Oscar Albert and Jón Helgason, eds. 1941. Saga Óláfs konungs hins helga: Den store saga om Olav den hellige efter pergamenthåndskrift i Kungliga biblioteket i Stockholm nr. 2 4to med varianter fra andre håndskrifter. 2 vols. Det norske historiske kildeskriftfond skrifter 53. Oslo: Dybwad.
  4. Flat 1930 = Finnur Jónsson 1930a.
  5. Louis-Jensen, Jonna. 1970b. ‘Et forlæg til Flateyjarbók? Fragmenterne AM 325 IV ß og XI, 3 4to’. Opuscula 4. BA 30, 141-58. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
  6. SkP IV = Poetry on Icelandic History. Ed. Guðrún Nordal. Forthcoming.
  7. SkP II = Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Ed. Kari Ellen Gade. 2009.
  8. Sigurður Nordal. 1914. Om Olav den helliges Saga. En kritisk undersøgelse. Copenhagen: Gad.
  9. Rowe, Elizabeth Ashman. 2005. The Development of Flateyjarbók: Iceland and the Norwegian Dynastic Crisis of 1389. VC 15. [Odense]: University Press of Southern Denmark.
  10. Internal references
  11. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Sverris saga (Sv)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  12. Not published: do not cite (StyrbI)
  13. Not published: do not cite (FbrV)
  14. Not published: do not cite (VǫlsaI)
  15. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.
  16. Not published: do not cite (ÞorlJI)
  17. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Separate Saga of S. Óláfr / Óláfs saga helga in sérstaka (ÓH)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxxvi-clxxix.
  18. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Greatest Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason / Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar in mesta (ÓT)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxiii-clxvi.
  19. Not published: do not cite (HallfrV)
  20. Not published: do not cite (HelgI)
  21. Not published: do not cite (EindrErlI)
  22. Not published: do not cite (FærII)
  23. Not published: do not cite (HarHárfII)
  24. Not published: do not cite (MHII)
  25. Not published: do not cite (SSlefII)
  26. Not published: do not cite (ÞormI)
  27. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Liðsmannaflokkr 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1016.
  28. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Eindriði Einarsson, Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 806.
  29. Kate Heslop 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Hallbjǫrn hali, Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 362.
  30. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Lausavísur from Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar in mesta 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1082.
  31. Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Lausavísur from Styrbjarnar þáttr Svíakappa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1076.
  32. Kate Heslop 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson, Jarlsníð’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 372.
  33. Kate Heslop 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson, Drápa about Sveinn tjúguskegg’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 373.
  34. R. D. Fulk 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þorkell klyppr Þórðarson, Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 269.
  35. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þrándr í Gǫtu, Kredda’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 802.
  36. Matthew Townend 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Sveinn tjúguskegg Haraldsson, Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 379.
  37. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Óláfr Tryggvason, Lausavísa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 384.
  38. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Óláfr inn helgi Haraldsson, Lausavísur 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 521.
  39. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Erfidrápa Óláfs helga 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 666.
  40. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorvaldr Hjaltason, Lausavísur 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 271.
  41. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Glymdrápa 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 90.
  42. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 13’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 107.
  43. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Poem about Haraldr hárfagri 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 61.
  44. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorleifr jarlsskáld Rauðfeldarson, Lausavísur 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 375.
  45. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þormóðr Kolbrúnarskáld, Lausavísur 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 823.
  46. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þormóðr Kolbrúnarskáld, Lausavísur 17’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1102.
  47. Wilhelm Heizmann (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Lausavísur from Vǫlsa þáttr 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1092.
  48. Wilhelm Heizmann (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Lausavísur from Vǫlsa þáttr 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1102.
  49. Not published: do not cite (StefnI)
Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300 8. Introduction 4. Sources for Skaldic Poetry Cited in the Kings' Sagas 1. Sagas of the kings of Norway after 1035 3. Flateyjarbók (Flat)

3. Flateyjarbók (Flat)

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].

Manuscripts

Flat:         Flateyjarbók, GKS 1005 fol (Icelandic, mainly c. 1387-95). Additions: Three quires (188r-210r) comprise the ‘Younger Flateyjarbók’ (YFlat; Mgóð to Ólkyrr (c. 1450-1500), copied from a sister ms. of Mork).
325IVβ and 325XI 3: AM 325 IV β 4°, AM 325 XI 3 4°; fragments of the archetype of YFlat (c. 1350-1400). AM 325IVβ contains no poetry.

Facsimile and editions: Flat 1930; Flat 1860-8, II-III, Louis-Jensen 1970b (fragments).

Poetry

Of the sagas relevant to SkP II, Flat contains Sv, Hák, parts of Orkn and MH. Many of the þættir found in MHMork (and in MgóðH-Hr and HSigH-Hr) are also recorded in Flat, among them an expanded version of Snegl. The poetry (and prose) in YFlat (MH) corresponds closely to the poetry in the extant portions of MHMork, hence Flat can be used to reconstruct the content of MHMork where Mork has lacunae. In addition to the poetry in the aforementioned sagas, Flat also contains (as the only manuscript) Anon Nkt. Sigv Berv 7-17 are also recorded in 325XI 3.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  3. Flat 1930 = Finnur Jónsson 1930a.
  4. Louis-Jensen, Jonna. 1970b. ‘Et forlæg til Flateyjarbók? Fragmenterne AM 325 IV ß og XI, 3 4to’. Opuscula 4. BA 30, 141-58. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
  5. SkP II = Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Ed. Kari Ellen Gade. 2009.
  6. Internal references
  7. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Sverris saga (Sv)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  8. 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Ǫrvar-Odds saga’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 804.
  9. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.
  10. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Orkneyinga saga (Orkn)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  11. Not published: do not cite (SneglII)
  12. Not published: do not cite (MHII)
  13. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Nóregs konungatal’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 761-806.
  14. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Bersǫglisvísur 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 18-19.
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Information about a text: poem, sequence of stanzas, or prose work

This page is used for different resources. For groups of stanzas such as poems, you will see the verse text and, where published, the translation of each stanza. These are also links to information about the individual stanzas.

For prose works you will see a list of the stanzas and fragments in that prose work, where relevant, providing links to the individual stanzas.

Where you have access to introduction(s) to the poem or prose work in the database, these will appear in the ‘introduction’ section.

The final section, ‘sources’ is a list of the manuscripts that contain the prose work, as well as manuscripts and prose works linked to stanzas and sections of a text.