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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Hák 3I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 177.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonHákonarmál
234

Hét á Háleygi         sems á Holmrygi
jarla einbani;         fór til orrostu.
Gótt hafði inn gjǫfli         gengi Norðmanna
œgir Eydana;         stóð und árhjalmi.

{Einbani jarla} hét á Háleygi sems á Holmrygi; fór til orrostu. {Inn gjǫfli œgir Eydana} hafði gótt gengi Norðmanna; stóð und árhjalmi.

{The sole slayer of jarls} [= Hákon] called on the Háleygir just as on the Hólmrygir; he went into battle. {The munificent terrifier of Island-Danes} [= Hákon] had the good support of the Norwegians; he stood under a helmet of metal.

Mss: (102r), Kˣ(105v) (l. 1), F(18ra), F(18va) (l. 1), J1ˣ(62r), J1ˣ(63v) (l. 1), J2ˣ(58r), J2ˣ(60r) (l. 1) (Hkr); FskBˣ(9v-10r), FskAˣ(50) (Fsk); 761bˣ(95v-96r)

Readings: [1] Háleygi: Holmrygi J1ˣ(62r), Háleygi corrected from ‘Holmrygi’ J2ˣ(58r)    [2] sems: sem F, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, sá er J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r);    á Holmrygi: her kallar J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r)    [3] ‑bani: ‑dani F    [4] fór: ‘forr’ FskBˣ    [5] gjǫfli: so F, J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskAˣ, gǫfgi Kˣ(102r), FskBˣ, 761bˣ    [7] œgir: so F, J1ˣ(62r), J2ˣ(58r), FskBˣ, FskAˣ, eyðir Kˣ(102r), 761bˣ;    Eydana: eyðanna FskAˣ    [8] ár‑: goll‑ F, háum FskBˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 64, Skj BI, 57, Skald I, 35; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 212, 219, IV, 54-5, ÍF 26, 186, 193, Hkr 1991, I, 119, 125 (HákGóð chs 30, 32), F 1871, 81; Fsk 1902-3, 39 (ch. 11), ÍF 29, 87 (ch. 12); Möbius 1860, 232-3, Jón Helgason 1968, 25, Krause 1990, 49-53.

Context: See st. 1.

Notes: [1-2]: The reading of J1ˣ, with J2ˣ in partial agreement, gives Hét á Holmrygi sá er her kallar ‘He who summons an army called on the Hólmrygir’, and it is adopted by Ettmüller (1858, 26; 1861, 26) and Cederström (1860, 7), but it is unlikely to be authorial, given the agreement of the other mss. — [2] sems ‘just as’: The conj. sem and relative particle es; see LP: sems. Although only found in , this is retained here since it is the reading of the main ms. and the lectio difficilior (so also Skj B). — [2] Holmrygi ‘the Hólmrygir’: The people of the islands off Rogaland; see Þhorn Harkv 14/1 and Note. — [3] einbani ‘the sole slayer’: Judging from LP: einbani, this is the only skaldic record of the word. The two eddic instances refer to Óðinn and Þórr.  — [5] gjǫfli ‘munificent’: As the agreement of the J transcripts and F, representing both sides of the Hkr stemma, gjǫfli is preferred here, as by most of the early eds. However, gǫfgi ‘noble’ seems more appropriate to the context (so Krause 1990, 51) and is preferred by most recent eds. — [8] ár- ‘of metal’: Also ‘ore, copper, bronze’. This is probably a borrowing of OE ār ‘ore, brass, copper’ (so Noreen 1921, 54; cf. Wimmer 1877, 168; Holthausen 1896, 141). Moberg (1997) argues that árhjalmr designates a helmet with a conical top, assuming an OWN *ár ‘point, top, peak’. In regard to the variation between árhjalmi in this stanza and gollhjalmi ‘golden helmet’ in the next, Olsen (1962a, 6) would explain this as a matter of perspective: like the valkyries, he says, at one instant we see the helmet from above and at the next shining from a distance. The first element was earlier interpreted as ar- (an idea treaceable to Hkr 1697, I, 164), in reference to eagle images (so Sahlgren 1927-8, I, 62; also ÍF 26), or related to árr ‘early’ (so Du Méril 1839, 158); see also Lie (1948, 203).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  5. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  6. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  8. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  9. Fsk 1902-3 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1902-3. Fagrskinna: Nóregs kononga tal. SUGNL 30. Copenhagen: Møller.
  10. Hkr 1697 = Peringskiöld, Johann, ed. 1697. Heims Kringla, eller Snorre Sturlusons Nordländske konunga sagor, sive Historiae regum septentrionalium a Snorrone Sturlonide, ante secula quinque patrio sermone antiquo conscriptae: quas ex manuscriptis codicibus edidit, versione gemina notisque brevioribus, indici poëtico vel rerum sparsim insertis, illustravit Johann Peringskiöld. 2 vols. Stockholm: Literis Wankiwianis.
  11. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  12. Ettmüller, Ludwig. 1858. Versuch einer strengeren kritischen Behandlung altnordischer Gedichte. Programm der Kantonschule in Zürich auf das Schuljahr 1858-1859. Zürich: Zürcher & Furrer.
  13. Möbius, Theodor. 1860. Edda Sæmundar hins fróða. Mit einem Anhang bisher ungedruckter Gedichte. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
  14. Holthausen, Ferdinand. 1896. Altisländisches Lesebuch. Weimar: Emil Felber.
  15. Olsen, Magnus. 1962a. Edda- og Skaldekvad. Forarbeider til kommentar. VI. Eyvindr Skáldaspillir, Glúmr Geirason, Einarr Skálaglamm. Avhandlingar utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo II. Hist.-filos. kl. new ser. 4. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  16. Du Méril, Edélestand. 1839. Histoire de la poésie Scandinave: Prolégomènes. Paris: Brockhaus & Avenarius.
  17. Jón Helgason, ed. 1968. Skjaldevers. 3rd edn. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
  18. Krause, Arnulf, ed. 1990. Die Dichtung des Eyvindr skáldaspillir: Edition-Kommentar-Untersuchungen. Altnordische Bibliothek 10. Leverkusen: Literaturverlag Norden Mark Reinhardt.
  19. Lie, Hallvard. 1948. ‘Et upåaktet gammelnorsk ord: hausi og Hákonarmál 6’. ANF 63, 200-3. Rpt. in Lie 1982, 325-8.
  20. Moberg, Lennart. 1997. ‘“Stóð und árhjalmi”: Kring Hákonarmál 3:8’. SI 48, 5-12.
  21. Sahlgren, Jöran. 1927-8. Eddica et Scaldica. Fornvästnordiska studier I-II. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  22. Noreen, Erik. 1921. Studier i fornvästnordisk diktning. Uppsala: Akademiska bokhandeln.
  23. Cederström, Rudolf. 1860. Forsök til tolkning och förklaring af Hákonar-mál. Stockholm: [n. p.].
  24. Wimmer, Ludvig F. A. 1877. Oldnordisk læsebog med anmærkninger og ordsamling. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Chr. Steen.
  25. Internal references
  26. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  27. Not published: do not cite (HákGóðII)
  28. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 14’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 108.
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