Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Konunga heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 687.
Mank haukstalda heiti segja:
allvaldr, fylkir ok afraki,
bragningr, ǫðlingr, buðlungr, dǫglingr,
ǫðlingr ok gramr, jǫfurr ok tyggi.
Mank segja heiti haukstalda: allvaldr, fylkir ok afraki, bragningr, ǫðlingr, buðlungr, dǫglingr, ǫðlingr ok gramr, jǫfurr ok tyggi.
I shall say the names of noblemen: all-powerful one, leader and prince, ruler, nobleman, descendant of Buðli, descendant of Dagr, nobleman and fierce one, prince and chieftain.
Mss: A(17r), B(8r), 744ˣ(53r) (SnE)
Readings:  Mank (‘Man æc’): ‘[…]an ek’ B, Man ek 744ˣ; haukstalda: ‘h[…]kstallda’ B, ‘haukstallda’ 744ˣ  allvaldr: ‘[…]ualldr’ B, ‘allualdr’ 744ˣ; fylkir: ‘[…]y᷎lker’ B, ‘fýlkir’ 744ˣ  bragningr: ‘bragning[…]’ B, bragningr 744ˣ  dǫglingr: ‘do᷎g[…]inngr’ B, ‘do᷎gglinngr’ 744ˣ  ǫðlingr: om. B
Notes:  haukstalda (m. gen. pl.) ‘of noblemen’: From Gmc *haga-, *hagi-, *hagu- ‘small plot of fenced-in land’ and *-staldaz (cf. Goth. gastaldan ‘receive, obtain’). In Old Norse, the word is attested in the gen. pl. only. ON haukstalda must be cognate with OHG hagustalt and OE hagosteald ‘one living in the lord’s house, an unmarried person, young warrior’ (cf. the runic name Hagustaldaʀ in the Norwegian Valsfjord inscription, c. 400 (RäF 55)). Because the expected Old Norse form is *hǫgstaldr, it is likely that the first element of the cpd, hagu-, was at some point confused with haukr m. ‘hawk, valiant man’ (AEW: haukstaldr, haukstallr). On the use of haukr to refer to warriors or noblemen, see Note to Arn Hryn 3/5II. —  afraki (m.) ‘prince’: The word is found only in this þula and its origin is obscure; cf. also ‑rekr (in folkrekr ‘folk-ruler’) and ‑reki (in landreki ‘land-ruler’, st. 2/6). According to de Vries, ‑raki is related to the weak verb rekja ‘straighten out’ (for other possible explanations, see AEW: raki 2 and ÍO: ‑raki). —  bragningr (m.) ‘ruler’: The word may mean ‘descendant of a chieftain’ (SnE 1998, II, 249); cf. bragnar m. pl. ‘men’ (see Note to Þul Manna 2/1), but in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 103), the heiti is explained as derived from the pers. n. Bragi, a son of Hálfdan gamli (see Introduction above). — [5, 7] ǫðlingr (m.) ‘nobleman’: A prince or a leader; from Gmc *aðulingaz (cf. aðal ‘nature’ and ‘chief’ (in compounds); AEW: ǫðlingr). According to Skm (SnE 1998, I, 103), the Ǫðlingar were descendants of Auði, a son of Hálfdan gamli (see Introduction above), but the words Auði and ǫðlingr are not etymologically related. Because ǫðlingr is mentioned twice in this stanza, Kock (NN §2160; Skald) suggests the reading auðlingr in l. 7, but that reading has no support in the ms. witnesses. Ms. A has identical readings in both lines (‘ø̨ðlingr’); the word is omitted in l. 7 in ms. B. —  buðlungr, dǫglingr ‘descendant of Buðli, descendant of Dagr’: Poetic designations for ‘prince’ from Buðlungar ‘descendants of Buðli’ and Daglingar ‘descendants of Dagr’. Both Dagr and Buðli are legendary kings, sons of Hálfdan gamli ‘the Old’ (Skm, SnE 1998, I, 103; see also Ættartölur in Flat 1860-8, I, 25 and Introduction above). Buðli could be the father of the legendary king Atli Buðlason (see Akv and Am), and there are also several kings of the name Dagr. —  gramr (m.) ‘fierce one’: Also listed as a heiti for ‘sword’ (Þul Sverða 1/5). In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 101), this and the following two heiti for ‘king’, jǫfurr ‘prince’ and tyggi ‘chieftain’ (l. 8), along with harri ‘lord’ (st. 2/1), hilmir ‘helmet-provider’ (st. 2/3), þengill ‘chieftain’ (st. 2/7), ræsir ‘impeller’ (st. 3/2) and skyli ‘protector’ (st. 3/4), are given as the names of the sons of Hálfdan gamli (see also Ættartölur in Flat 1860-8, I, 24-5 and Introduction above). —  jǫfurr (m.) ‘prince’: A poetic term for ‘ruler’ from Gmc *eburaz ‘wild boar’ (see AEW: jǫfurr). In Skm (SnE 1998, I, 103), this is a son of Hálfdan gamli (see Introduction above). In North Germanic, the later forms of Gmc *eburaz occur only in personal names and poetic designations for ‘ruler’, whereas in West Germanic the word denotes the animal itself (‘wild boar’) as well. OE Eofor is also attested as a pers. n. (see Beowulf 2008, 466). —  tyggi (m.) ‘chieftain’: A poetic word for ‘ruler’, derived from a weak verb *tugja- (AEW: tyggi) and etymologically related to ‑togi in hertogi ‘army-leader’, st. 2/2 below, ultimately derived from the strong verb *teuhan (cf. Goth. tiuhan ‘pull, tear’, etc.). The spelling of this word in most later mss (including mss A, B of the present stanza) is ‘tiggi’, while tyggi is the form secured by internal rhyme. Tiggi rhyming with ‑igg- is first attested in SnSt Ht 74/2, and that form becomes regular after 1200 (see LP: tyggi). Tiggi is also the name of a son of Hálfdan gamli (see Introduction above, Flat 1860-8, I, 25), and that may be an etymologically different word which is most likely related to tiginn m. ‘high-born’, tign f. ‘highness, honour’ (see ÍO: tyggi).
Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.
The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.
This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.
This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.