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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Jǫtna I 6III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 716.

Anonymous ÞulurJǫtna heiti I
56

Beinviðr, Bjǫrgolfr         ok Brandingi,
Dumbr, Bergelmir,         Dofri ok Miðjungr,
Nati, Søkkmímir;         nú eru upp talið
ámáttligra         jǫtna heiti.

Beinviðr, Bjǫrgolfr ok Brandingi, Dumbr, Bergelmir, Dofri ok Miðjungr, Nati, Søkkmímir; nú eru upp talið heiti ámáttligra jǫtna.

Beinviðr, Bjǫrgólfr and Brandingi, Dumbr, Bergelmir, Dofri and Miðjungr, Nati, Søkkmímir; now the names of mighty giants have been enumerated.

Mss: R(42r), Tˣ(43v-44r), C(11r), A(17v), B(8r), 744ˣ(57v) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Beinviðr: ‘B[…]ínuidr’ B, ‘Beínuiðr’ 744ˣ;    Bjǫrgolfr: ‘bio᷎r[…]fr’ B, ‘bio᷎rgolfr’ 744ˣ    [3] Dumbr: so Tˣ, C, 744ˣ, ‘dvmr’ R, ‘dvmbr’ or ‘dvnbr’ A, ‘dum[…]’ B;    Bergelmir: ‘b[…]mir’ B, bergelmir 744ˣ    [4] Dofri: ‘dof[…]’ B, dofri 744ˣ;    ok: om. Tˣ, 744ˣ, ‘[…]’ B;    Miðjungr: miðningr Tˣ, ‘midi[…]nngr’ B, ‘miðiunngr’ 744ˣ    [5] Nati: nati ok C;    Søkkmímir: so Tˣ, ‘sekmimir’ R, sægrímnir C, ‘sǫkmimir’ A, ‘soknmimir’ B    [6] eru upp talið: so Tˣ, nú er upp talit R, C, om. A, B    [7] ámáttligra: enn eru eptir A, B

Editions: Skj AI, 655, Skj BI, 659, Skald I, 324, NN §1783A; SnE 1848-87, I, 550-1, II, 471, 554, 615, SnE 1931, 195, SnE 1998, I, 111-12.

Notes: [1] Beinviðr: Not known from other sources as the name of a giant. The first element of the cpd, Bein-, may be connected either with bein n. ‘leg, bone’ or with the adj. beinn ‘straight’, and the second element must be the same word as viðr m. ‘tree, wood’. This giant-name is probably not the same as the tree-name beinviðr ‘holly’ (Þul Viðar 1/8; see Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 298, but cf. ÍO: beinviður). Alternatively, the correct reading could be Beinvíðr ‘big-legged one’. — [1] Bjǫrgolfr: Not mentioned elsewhere in skaldic poetry, but it is attested in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: Bjǫrgólfr). According to Finnur Jónsson (1934-5, 303), the name (from bjǫrg n. pl. ‘mountains and úlfr ‘wolf’) is modelled on the same pattern as such giant-kennings as fjallgylðir ‘mountain-wolf [GIANT]’ Þjóð Haustl 4/1. Less convincing is Motz’s (1984, 181) suggestion that the first element of the cpd is derived from bjǫrg f. ‘help, salvation’ (or ‘stores, provisions, food’; ÍO: Bjǫrg- 2), hence perhaps ‘help-wolf’. — [2] Brandingi: An unknown legendary hero in Anon Mhkv 8/2 (see Note there), who is probably not identical with the giant listed here. Brandingi is derived from brandr m. ‘fire’ (cf. other names of giants with the same meaning, e.g. Eldr, st. 5/5). — [3] Dumbr: So , C, 744ˣ. Lit. ‘dumb one’, or derived from dumba f. ‘mist’. If the latter derivation is correct, Dumbr, like the preceding name, Brandingi, is one of the giant-names connected with atmospheric phenomena or natural forces (Motz 1987, 304). The R variant ‘dvmr’ must be a scribal error. As a giant-name, Dumbr occurs only here, in Allra flagða þula (see Introduction) and in the rímur (Frinnur Jónsson 1926-8: Dumbr), but there is a king of this name in Egils saga einhenda (ch. 3, FSN III, 398: Dumbr konungr úr Dumbshafi ‘King Dumbr from Dumbshaf’). The p. n. Dumbshaf (lit. ‘Dumbr’s Sea’) is known from other sources (e.g. Flat 1860-8, I, 22). — [3] Bergelmir: Ymir’s grandson and the progenitor of the frost-giants (Vafþr 29/3, 35/3; Gylf, SnE 2005, 11). The first element ber- is either from the root *ber- in bjǫrn m. ‘bear’ or from berg n. ‘rock’; hence ‘bear-screamer’ or, alternatively, ‘rock-screamer’ (cf. ÍO: Bergelmir). For the second element ‑gelmir ‘noise-maker’, see Þrúðgelmir (st. 2/7). The name does not otherwise appear in skaldic poetry. — [4] Dofri: Lit. ‘one who lives on Dovrefjell (Dofrafjall)’ (a mountain range in Norway). This is a giant in Haralds þáttr hárfagra (Flat 1860-8, I, 564-6, 571), with whom the future king spent five years (see also Illuga saga Tagldarbana ch. 1-3, Guðni Jónsson 1946-9, 3, 23-43). The name is derived from dofra-, gen. pl. of Dofrar, which was perhaps reanalysed as a gen. sg. of dofri (Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 300). The name does not occur in Old Norse poetry but is found in the rímur (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: dofri) and in modern Scandinavian folklore (see Motz 1984, 177 n. 12). — [4] Miðjungr: From miðja f. ‘middle’. It has been suggested that this may be the name of intermediate beings or mediators between the giants and the gods (Finnur Jónsson 1934-5, 302; cf. also Miði, Þul Jǫtna II 3/4). The name occurs in kennings for ‘giants’ (Þjóð Haustl 8/7-8) and in man-kennings (LP: miðjungr; see also Note to Eskál Vell 28/2I). Miðjungr ‘middler’ is a heiti for ‘ram’ (Þul Hrúts l. 9). In the rímur, Miðjungr appears to be the name of a dwarf (Finnur Jónsson 1926-8: miðjungr). — [5] Nati: An obscure name not known from other sources. According to Finnur Jónsson (1934-5, 302), it might be either a m. form of nata f. ‘nettle’ (cf. New Norw. ‑nata > netla ‘knit’) or the weak form of an adj. *natr ‘wet’ (OHG naz). Motz (1987, 310) derives the word from nata f. ‘spear’. — [5] Søkkmímir: Or Sǫk- (so Skj B). In Grí 50/2, Søkkmímir is an old giant visited by Óðinn (cf. Sǫkmímir in Þjóð Yt 2/10I). For the second element of the cpd, see Mímir (st. 1/3). The first element is perhaps søkkr m. ‘sunken position’ or derived from the strong verb søkkva ‘sink’ (< Gmc *sinkvan) or from the weak verb søkkva ‘cause sth. to sink’ (< Gmc *sankwian). In CVC: sǫkk the name is glossed as ‘the giant of the deep’. Although variant spellings with <ǫ> occur, the stem vowel is <ø> (see also the spelling in ms. R ‘sekmimir’). In ms. C, Søkkmímir is replaced by Sægrímnir ‘sea-Grímnir’ (cf. Grímnir in st. 1/6, 2/4 above and Sæhrímnir, a mythical boar in Grí 18/3). — [6-8] nú eru upp talið heiti ámáttligra jǫtna ‘now the names of mighty giants have been enumerated’: In an attempt to merge Þul Jǫtna I and Þul Jǫtna II, this concluding formula has been omitted in mss A and B and transferred to the last stanza of the second þula of giants’ names (Þul Jǫtna II st. 3). In its place, the first two lines of Þul Jǫtna II (enn eru eptir | jǫtna heiti ‘still there are names of giants to come’) have been added after l. 6. — [8]: In R, continuationem vide […] | infra post lineas xiij ‘see continuation […] below after thirteen lines’ has been added at the end of this line with a different ink and in a later hand.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. FSN = Rafn, Carl Christian, ed. 1829-30. Fornaldar sögur nordrlanda. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  5. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  7. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  8. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  9. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  10. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  11. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  12. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  13. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  14. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  15. Finnur Jónsson. 1934-5. ‘Þulur: Søkonge- og jættenavneremserne’. APS 9, 289-308.
  16. Motz, Lotte. 1984. ‘Gods and Demons of the Wilderness: A Study in Norse Tradition’. ANF 99, 175-87.
  17. Motz, Lotte. 1987. ‘Old Icelandic Giants and Their Names’. FS 21, 295-317.
  18. Guðni Jónsson, ed. 1946-9. Íslendinga sögur. 13 vols. Reykjavík: Íslendingasagnaútgáfan. Rpt. 1953.
  19. Internal references
  20. Not published: do not cite (GylfIII)
  21. Not published: do not cite (HarHárfII)
  22. Roberta Frank (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Poems, Málsháttakvæði 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1222.
  23. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti II 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 722.
  24. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Viðar heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 881.
  25. Not published: do not cite ()
  26. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 28’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 318.
  27. Not published: do not cite ()
  28. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Jǫtna heiti I’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 706.
  29. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Jǫtna heiti II’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 718.
  30. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Hrúts heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 890.
  31. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 437.
  32. Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Haustlǫng 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 443.
  33. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 10.
  34. Not published: do not cite ()
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