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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300 8. Introduction 5. Biographies 2. Biographies of Other Dignitaries i. Waltheof (Valþjófr) of Huntingdon and Northumbria

i. Waltheof (Valþjófr) of Huntingdon and Northumbria

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Waltheof (Valþjófr) of Huntingdon and Northumbria’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].

Sagas: HSig, MH (Flat, Fsk, H-Hr, Hkr, Mork).

Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria, was the son of Earl Siward of Northumbria (d. 1055). After the Norman Conquest in 1066, Waltheof was among the Anglo-Saxon noblemen who swore allegiance to William the Conqueror, but in 1069 he joined the northern uprising against him. He subsequently submitted to William (1070) but participated in the Revolt of the Earls in 1075. After that revolt failed, he repented and again submitted to William. Waltheof was executed (beheaded) in Winchester on 31 May 1076 and his body was interred in Crowland, where rumours later arose about his sanctity. The ON sources erroneously make him a brother of Harold Godwineson and also state that he participated in the battle of Fulford (20 September 1066). See Flat (Flat 1860-8, III, 390); Fsk (ÍF 29, 278-9, 293-5; Finlay 2004, 222-3, 234-5), H-Hr (Fms 6, 393, 406-9, 424-7), Hkr (ÍF 28, 168, 179-81, 194-6; Hollander 1991, 641, 649-50, 658-9), Mork (Mork 1928-32, 267-8; Andersson and Gade 2000, 265). See also Saga hins heilaga Eðvarðar (Flat 1860-8, III, 469), Hem (Hb 1892-6, 338-41, 345-7), Knýtl (ÍF 35, 111; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1986, 34), Orkn (ÍF 34, 86; Hermann Pálsson and Edwards 1987, 77). For a detailed overview of his life, see Scott 1952.

Events documented in poetry: Waltheof’s participation in the battle of Fulford (Anon Harst); he and his men burning more than a hundred Norman warriors in a forest (ÞSkall Valfl 1); his execution in 1076 (ÞSkall Valfl 2).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  3. Andersson, Theodore M. and Kari Ellen Gade, trans. 2000. Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157). Islandica 51. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  4. Edwards, Paul. 1986. ‘Alcohol into Art: Drink and Poetry in Old Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon’. In Simek et al. 1986, 85-97.
  5. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  6. Mork 1928-32 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1928-32. Morkinskinna. SUGNL 53. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  7. Finlay, Alison, trans. 2004. Fagrskinna: A Catalogue of the Kings of Norway. Leiden: Brill.
  8. Hb 1892-6 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1892-6. Hauksbók udgiven efter de Arnamagnæanske håndskrifter no. 371, 544 og 675, 4° samt forskellige papirshåndskrifter. Copenhagen: Det kongelige nordiske oldskrift-selskab.
  9. Hollander, Lee M. 1991 = Hollander, Lee M. 1964a.
  10. Scott, Forrest S. 1952. ‘Earl Waltheof of Northumbria’. Archæologia Æliana 4th ser. 30, 149-215.
  11. Internal references
  12. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  13. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.
  14. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Orkneyinga saga (Orkn)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  15. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  16. 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Ragnars saga loðbrókar’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 616.
  17. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Hulda and Hrokkinskinna (H-Hr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  18. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Morkinskinna (Mork)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  19. Matthew Townend 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Haraldsstikki’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 807-8.
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