skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Gsind Hákdr 3I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 161.

Guthormr sindriHákonardrápa
234

Selund náði þá síðan
sóknheggr und sik leggja
vals ok Vinða frelsi
víð Skáneyjar síðu.

{Sóknheggr} náði þá síðan leggja und sik Selund, víð frelsi vals ok Vinða, síðu Skáneyjar.

{The attack-cherry-tree} [WARRIOR = Hákon] then afterwards succeeded in placing under himself Zealand, the broad sanctuaries against slaughter and the Wends, [and] the coast of Skåne.

Mss: (87r), F(15rb), J1ˣ(51v), J2ˣ(49r) (Hkr); 61(4rb), Bb(5va), Flat(7rb) (ÓT)

Readings: [1] Selund: sælund J1ˣ, sælǫnd Flat;    náði: naðr J1ˣ, náðir Flat;    þá: þú Flat    [2] sik: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb, þik Kˣ, Flat;    leggja: leggjask Bb    [4] víð: viðr J1ˣ, J2ˣ;    síðu: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, síða Kˣ, F, 61, Bb, Flat

Editions: Skj AI, 62, Skj BI, 55, Skald I, 34, NN §§1930, 2910A; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 177, IV, 47, ÍF 26, 159-60, Hkr 1991, I, 101 (HákGóð ch. 8), F 1871, 68; Fms 1, 28, Fms 12, 26, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 27 (ch. 18), Flat 1860-8, I, 53 .

Context: Hákon continues with extensive raids around Selund (Zealand), encountering no resistance. After citation of the stanza it is mentioned that Hákon follows up on these successes by moving east, raiding the coast of Skáney (Skåne) and attacking Danish and Wendish vikings.

Notes: [All]: The interpretation of the helmingr is uncertain because of the difficulty of l. 3 and the variation in the ms. readings. (a) In this edn, frelsi vals ok Vinða is tentatively taken as ‘sanctuaries against slaughter and the Wends’ (see Note to l. 3 below). The phrase could either be in apposition to Selund, characterising Zealand, or the two phrases could refer to different places, so that the helmingr lists three places (so Kock, NN §1930, and cf. Kock 1936, 1-2; Toyne 1948, 69 n.). In ll. 3-4, asyndeton, the omission of a explicit conj. ‘and’, is assumed. This overall solution accounts for the range of readings. Original víð Skáneyjar síðu, with collocation of what appears to be a f. nom. sg. adj. víð with a f. acc. sg. noun síðu, evidently confused the redactors, who attempted to solve the apparent difficulty in two different ways: (1) changing the acc. to nom. (Skáneyjar) síða to achieve case agreement; (2) changing the adj. to a prep. (viðr ‘by’) and retaining the case of the noun (acc. (Skáneyjar) síðu). (b) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; cf. ÍF 26) construes the helmingr differently. He treats Skáneyjarsíðu as a combined object with Selund (linked by ok ‘and’ in l. 3), and interprets Vinða ‘of Wends’ as governing vals ‘choice’, taken in the sense of ‘elite’: thus Selund ok Skáneyjarsíðu, víð frelsi vals Vinða ‘Zealand and the coast of Skåne, widely-spread sanctuaries of the elite of the Wends’. But the placing of ok makes this unlikely and it is hard to see why an elite of Wends would be specified. — [2] -heggr ‘-cherry-tree’: Heggr is prunus padus, the bird-cherry tree, a species of cherry native to northern Europe. — [3] frelsi vals ok Vinða ‘sanctuaries against slaughter and the Wends’: (a) The f. pl. noun frelsi (often ‘freedom’) is taken here to mean ‘sanctuary, refuge’ (so LP (1860): frelsi and Finnur Jónsson, Note to [All], interpretation (b), above) and construed as taking the double gen., vals ‘of slaughter’ and Vinda ‘of the Wends’, forming a phrase meaning that these areas became safe after Hákon took over. (b) Interpreting vals as gen. sg. of valr ‘falcon’ and vinda as gen. pl. of vindr ‘wind’ would give ‘freedom of the falcon and of the winds’, which could conceivably be a poetic description of a tract of sea and/or land, but its reference would be elusive and it would be unparalleled in skaldic poetry.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. LP (1860) = Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1860. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis. Copenhagen: Societas Regia antiquariorum septentrionalium.
  7. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  8. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  9. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  10. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  11. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  12. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  13. Kock, Ernst Albin. 1936. ‘Fyra skaldestrofer om strid och stridsmän’. In Bidrag til nordisk filologi tillägnade Emil Olson den 9 juni 1936. Lund: Gleerup, 1-7.
  14. Toyne, Stanley Mease. 1948. The Scandinavians in History. Freeport, N. Y.: Books for Libraries Press.
  15. Internal references
  16. Not published: do not cite (HákGóðII)
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.