Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to Gamlkan Has 33VII

[2-3] hjalmstýranda sunnu ‘steerer of the helmet of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: Although the sky- or heaven-kenning sunnu hjalmr is a hap. leg., it recalls hjalmr sólar ‘helmet of the sun’ in Arnórr jarlaskáld’s supposed fragment from a memorial poem for Gellir Þorkelsson (Arn Frag 1III; cf. Whaley 1998, 134), the earliest surviving poetic account of the Last Judgement in ON. The helmet reference also occurs in Leið 30/5-8, where God is referred to as ǫðlingr lopthjalms ‘king of the sky-helmet’.


  1. Bibliography
  2. Whaley, Diana, ed. and trans. 1998. The Poetry of Arnórr jarlaskáld: An Edition and Study. Westfield Publications in Medieval Studies 8. Turnhout: Brepols.
  3. Internal references
  4. Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Leiðarvísan 30’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 167-8.
  5. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2017, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Fragments 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.


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