skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 33VII/2 — ins ‘of the’

Hǫrð munat hógligt verða
hjalmstýranda ins dýra
sunnu synðgum mǫnnum
sekðarorð at forðask,
systkin mín, þvít sýnask
sôr ok kross fyr ossu
dróttins várs með dreyra
dyggs augliti hryggu.

Munat verða hógligt synðgum mǫnnum at forðask hǫrð sekðarorð ins dýra sunnu hjalmstýranda, þvít, systkin mín, sôr ok kross dyggs dróttins várs með dreyra sýnask fyr hryggu augliti ossu.

It will not be easy for sinful men to escape the harsh words of damnation of the precious ruler of the helmet of the sun [(lit. ‘helmet-ruler of the sun’) SKY/HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)], because, my brothers and sisters, the wounds and Cross of our faithful Lord, as well as his blood, will appear before our rueful faces [lit. face].

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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