skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Leið 33VII/4 — it ‘that is’

Gefr, sás ǫllum efri,
ǫðlingr salar rǫðla
— goð magnar þrif þegna —
þjóðum allt it góða.
Gramr skóp hauðr ok himna
hreggranns sem kyn seggja;
einns salkonungr sólar
snjallr hjalpari allra.

Ǫðlingr salar rǫðla, sás efri ǫllum, gefr þjóðum allt it góða; goð magnar þrif þegna. Gramr hreggranns skóp hauðr ok himna sem kyn seggja; snjallr sólar salkonungr [e]s einn hjalpari allra.

The prince of the hall of heavenly bodies [SKY/HEAVEN > = God], who is higher than all, gives to people all that is good — God strengthens the prosperity of his servants. The king of the storm-house [SKY/HEAVEN > = God] made land and skies as well as the race of men; the excellent king of the hall of the sun [(lit. ‘hall-king of the sun’) HEAVEN > = God] is alone the helper of all.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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