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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Á 5III/3 — vaða ‘one waded’

Gilling ok Níl,         Ganges, Tvedda,
Luma, vervaða,         Leira ok Gunnþró,
Víð, Svǫl, Vegsvinn,         yn, Þjóðnuma,
Fjǫrm, Strǫnd ok Spé         ok Fimbulþul.

Gilling ok Níl, Ganges, Tvedda, Luma, vervaða, Leira ok Gunnþró, Víð, Svǫl, Vegsvinn, yn, Þjóðnuma, Fjǫrm, Strǫnd ok Spé ok Fimbulþul.

Gilling and Nile, Ganges, Tweed, Luma, one waded by men, Loire and Gunnþró, Víð, Svǫl, Vegsvinn, yn, Þjóðnuma, Fjǫrm, Strǫnd and Spey and Fimbulþul.


[3] ‑vaða: ‘vóða’ A, ‘‑veda’ B


[3] vervaða (f.) ‘one waded by men’: A hap. leg. This could be a mythical name, possibly one of the poisonous rivers of Nástrǫnd ‘corpse-shore’ (Finnur Jónsson 1933-4, 268), because men (verar) who are oath-breakers and murderers are said to wade (vaða) through these rivers (Vsp 38-9; Gylf, SnE 2005, 53). Alternatively, Rygh (1904, 294) reports that Sophus Bugge interpreted the first element ver- in river-names as ‘calm’ (rolig, stille ‘calm, quiet’). Vervaða would then mean ‘one with a calm ford’ (vað n. means ‘ford’).



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