skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 9I/1 — ins ‘the’

‘Freistuðu ins framráða,         es þeim flýja kenndi,
allvalds austmanna,         es býr at Útsteini.
Stóðum Nǫkkva brá stillir,         es honum vas styrjar væni;
hlǫmmun vas á hlífum,         áðr Haklangr felli.

‘Freistuðu ins framráða allvalds austmanna, es kenndi þeim flýja, es býr at Útsteini. Stillir brá stóðum Nǫkkva, es honum vas væni styrjar; hlǫmmun vas á hlífum, áðr Haklangr felli.

‘They tested the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians [NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr], who taught them to flee, who resides at Utstein. The ruler set in motion the stud-horses of Nǫkkvi <sea-king> [SHIPS] when he expected combat; there was thundering on shields before Haklangr fell.

kennings

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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