skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hryn 1II/2 — in ‘its’

Kljúfa létk í kaupfǫr dúfu
knarra minn við borð in stinnu.

Létk knarra minn kljúfa dúfu við in stinnu borð í kaupfǫr.

I made my vessel cleave the billow with its firm strakes on a trading voyage.

notes

[2] við in stinnu borð ‘with its firm strakes’: (a) Við could be oppositional ‘against’ or instr. ‘by (means of)’. In either case the phrase would be adverbial, modifying kljúfa ‘cleave’ (l. 1), hence ‘cleave the billow with/against its firm strakes’. Analysed thus, the couplet gives a fine picture of the ship’s motion through the waves. (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B took the við-phrase to qualify knarra, hence ‘vessel with firm strakes’.

grammar

Pronouns and determiners: Definite article

The definite article is normally suffixed to nouns, except in some cases where it is used with an adjective. If the noun form ends in a vowel, the 'i' in the article is dropped. If the noun form ends in 'um', the 'm' and 'i' are both dropped. E.g. hesta (acc. pl.) > hestana (acc. pl. definite); hestum (dat. pl.) > hestunum (dat. pl. definite)

masc.fem.neut.
sing. N
A
G
D
inn
inn
ins
inum
in
ina
innar
inni
it
it
ins
inu
pl. N
A
G
D
inir
ina
inna
inum
inar
inar
inna
inum
in
in
inna
inum
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